# [Solutions] Romanian Masters Mathematics 2021

1. Let $T_1$, $T_2$, $T_3$, $T_4$ be pairwise distinct collinear points such that $T_2$ lies between $T_1$ and $T_3$, and $T_3$ lies between $T_2$ and $T_4$. Let $\omega_1$ be a circle through $T_1$ and $T_4$; let $\omega_2$ be the circle through $T_2$ and internally tangent to $\omega_1$ at $T_1$; let $\omega_3$ be the circle through $T_3$ and externally tangent to $\omega_2$ at $T_2$; and let $\omega_4$ be the circle through $T_4$ and externally tangent to $\omega_3$ at $T_3$. A line crosses $\omega_1$ at $P$ and $W$, $\omega_2$ at $Q$ and $R$, $\omega_3$ at $S$ and $T$, and $\omega_4$ at $U$ and $V$, the order of these points along the line being $P$, $Q$, $R$, $S$, $T$, $U$, $V$, $W$. Prove that $$PQ + TU = RS + VW.$$
2. Xenia and Sergey play the following game. Xenia thinks of a positive integer $N$ not exceeding $5000$. Then she fixes $20$ distinct positive integers $a_1, a_2, \cdots, a_{20}$ such that, for each $k = 1,2,\cdots,20$, the numbers $N$ and $a_k$ are congruent modulo $k$. By a move, Sergey tells Xenia a set $S$ of positive integers not exceeding $20$, and she tells him back the set $\{a_k : k \in S\}$ without spelling out which number corresponds to which index. How many moves does Sergey need to determine for sure the number Xenia thought of?
3. A number of $17$ workers stand in a row. Every contiguous group of at least $2$ workers is a $brigade$. The chief wants to assign each brigade a leader (which is a member of the brigade) so that each worker’s number of assignments is divisible by $4$. Prove that the number of such ways to assign the leaders is divisible by $17$.
4. Consider an integer $n \ge 2$ and write the numbers $1, 2, \ldots, n$ down on a board. A move consists in erasing any two numbers $a$ and $b$, then writing down the numbers $a+b$ and $\vert a-b \vert$ on the board, and then removing repetitions (e.g., if the board contained the numbers $2, 5, 7, 8$, then one could choose the numbers $a = 5$ and $b = 7$, obtaining the board with numbers $2, 8, 12$). For all integers $n \ge 2$, determine whether it is possible to be left with exactly two numbers on the board after a finite number of moves.
5. Let $n$ be a positive integer. The kingdom of Zoomtopia is a convex polygon with integer sides, perimeter $6n$, and $60^\circ$ rotational symmetry (that is, there is a point $O$ such that a $60^\circ$ rotation about $O$ maps the polygon to itself). In light of the pandemic, the government of Zoomtopia would like to relocate its $3n^2+3n+1$ citizens at $3n^2+3n+1$ points in the kingdom so that every two citizens have a distance of at least $1$ for proper social distancing. Prove that this is possible. (The kingdom is assumed to contain its boundary.)
6. Initially, a non-constant polynomial $S(x)$ with real coefficients is written down on a board. Whenever the board contains a polynomial $P(x)$, not necessarily alone, one can write down on the board any polynomial of the form $P(C + x)$ or $C + P(x)$ where $C$ is a real constant. Moreover, if the board contains two (not necessarily distinct) polynomials $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$, one can write $P(Q(x))$ and $P(x) + Q(x)$ down on the board. No polynomial is ever erased from the board. Given two sets of real numbers, $A = \{ a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n \}$ and $B = \{ b_1, \dots, b_n \}$, a polynomial $f(x)$ with real coefficients is $(A,B)$-nice if $f(A) = B$, where $f(A) = \{ f(a_i) : i = 1, 2, \dots, n \}$. Determine all polynomials $S(x)$ that can initially be written down on the board such that, for any two finite sets $A$ and $B$ of real numbers, with $|A| = |B|$, one can produce an $(A,B)$-nice polynomial in a finite number of steps.
 MOlympiad.NET rất mong bạn đọc ủng hộ UPLOAD đề thi và đáp án mới hoặc LIÊN HỆ[email protected] You can use $\LaTeX$ in comment