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[Solutions] India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016

Delhi Region

  1. Given are two circles $\omega_1,\omega_2$ which intersect at points $X,Y$. Let $P$ be an arbitrary point on $\omega_1$. Suppose that the lines $PX,PY$ meet $\omega_2$ again at points $A,B$ respectively. Prove that the circumcircles of all triangles $PAB$ have the same radius.
  2. Consider a sequence $(a_k)_{k \ge 1}$ of natural numbers defined as follows: $a_1=a$ and $a_2=b$ with $a,b>1$ and $\gcd(a,b)=1$ and for all $k>0$, $a_{k+2}=a_{k+1}+a_k$. Prove that for all natural numbers $n$ and $k$, $$\gcd(a_n,a_{n+k}) <\frac{a_k}{2}.$$
  3. Two circles $C_1$ and $C_2$ intersect each other at points $A$ and $B$. Their external common tangent (closer to $B$) touches $C_1$ at $P$ and $C_2$ at $Q$. Let $C$ be the reflection of $B$ in line $PQ$. Prove that $\angle CAP=\angle BAQ$. 
  4. Let $a,b,c$ be positive real numbers such that $a+b+c=3$. Determine, with certainty, the largest possible value of the expression $$ \frac{a}{a^3+b^2+c}+\frac{b}{b^3+c^2+a}+\frac{c}{c^3+a^2+b}$$
  5. a) A 7-tuple $(a_1,a_2,a_3,a_4,b_1,b_2,b_3)$ of pairwise distinct positive integers with no common factor is called a shy tuple if $$ a_1^2+a_2^2+a_3^2+a_4^2=b_1^2+b_2^2+b_3^2$$and for all $1 \le i<j \le 4$ and $1 \le k \le 3$, $a_i^2+a_j^2 \not= b_k^2$. Prove that there exists infinitely many shy tuples. b) Show that $2016$ can be written as a sum of squares of four distinct natural numbers.
  6. A deck of $52$ cards is given. There are four suites each having cards numbered $1,2,\dots, 13$. The audience chooses some five cards with distinct numbers written on them. The assistant of the magician comes by, looks at the five cards and turns exactly one of them face down and arranges all five cards in some order. Then the magician enters and with an agreement made beforehand with the assistant, he has to determine the face down card (both suite and number). Explain how the trick can be completed.

Mumbai Region

  1. Let $ABC$ be a right-angled triangle with $\angle B=90^{\circ}$. Let $I$ be the incenter of $ABC$. Draw a line perpendicular to $AI$ at $I$. Let it intersect the line $CB$ at $D$. Prove that $CI$ is perpendicular to $AD$ and prove that $ID=\sqrt{b(b-a)}$ where $BC=a$ and $CA=b$.
  2. Let $a,b,c$ be positive real numbers such that $$\frac{a}{1+a}+\frac{b}{1+b}+\frac{c}{1+c}=1.$$Prove that $abc \le \frac{1}{8}$.
  3. For any natural number $n$, expressed in base $10$, let $S(n)$ denote the sum of all digits of $n$. Find all natural numbers $n$ such that $n=2S(n)^2$.
  4. Find the number of all 6-digits numbers having exactly three odd and three even digits.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with centroid $G$. Let the circumcircle of triangle $AGB$ intersect the line $BC$ in $X$ different from $B$; and the circucircle of triangle $AGC$ intersect the line $BC$ in $Y$ different from $C$. Prove that $G$ is the centroid of triangle $AXY$.
  6. Let $(a_1,a_2,\dots)$ be a strictly increasing sequence of positive integers in arithmetic progression. Prove that there is an infinite sub-sequence of the given sequence whose terms are in a geometric progression.

Maharashtra and Goa Region

  1. Find distinct positive integers $n_1<n_2<\dots<n_7$ with the least possible sum, such that their product $n_1 \times n_2 \times \dots \times n_7$ is divisible by $2016$.
  2. At an international event there are $100$ countries participating, each with its own flag. There are $10$ distinct flagpoles at the stadium, labelled 1,#2,...,#10 in a row. In how many ways can all the $100$ flags be hoisted on these $10$ flagpoles, such that for each $i$ from $1$ to $10$, the flagpole #i has at least $i$ flags? (Note that the vertical order of the flagpoles on each flag is important)
  3. Find all integers $k$ such that all roots of the following polynomial are also integers: $$f(x)=x^3-(k-3)x^2-11x+(4k-8).$$
  4. Let $\triangle ABC$ be scalene, with $BC$ as the largest side. Let $D$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $A$ on side $BC$. Let points $K,L$ be chosen on the lines $AB$ and $AC$ respectively, such that $D$ is the midpoint of segment $KL$. Prove that the points $B,K,C,L$ are concyclic if and only if $\angle BAC=90^{\circ}$.
  5. Let $x,y,z$ be non-negative real numbers such that $xyz=1$. Prove that $$(x^3+2y)(y^3+2z)(z^3+2x) \ge 27.$$
  6. $ABC$ is an equilateral triangle with side length $11$ units. Consider the points $P_1,P_2, \dots, P_10$ dividing segment $BC$ into $11$ parts of unit length. Similarly, define $Q_1, Q_2, \dots, Q_10$ for the side $CA$ and $R_1,R_2,\dots, R_10$ for the side $AB$. Find the number of triples $(i,j,k)$ with $i,j,k \in \{1,2,\dots,10\}$ such that the centroids of triangles $ABC$ and $P_iQ_jR_k$ coincide.

Karnataka and WB region

  1. Let \(ABC\) be a triangle and \(D\) be the mid-point of \(BC\). Suppose the angle bisector of \(\angle ADC\) is tangent to the circumcircle of triangle \(ABD\) at \(D\). Prove that \(\angle A=90^{\circ}\).
  2. Let \(a,b,c\) be three distinct positive real numbers such that \(abc=1\). Prove that $$\dfrac{a^3}{(a-b)(a-c)}+\dfrac{b^3}{(b-c)(b-a)}+\dfrac{c^3}{(c-a)(c-b)} \ge 3$$
  3. Let $a,b,c,d,e,d,e,f$ be positive integers such that \(\dfrac a b < \dfrac c d < \dfrac e f\). Suppose \(af-be=-1\). Show that \(d \geq b+f\).
  4. There are \(100\) countries participating in an olympiad. Suppose \(n\) is a positive integers such that each of the \(100\) countries is willing to communicate in exactly \(n\) languages. If each set of \(20\) countries can communicate in exactly one common language, and no language is common to all \(100\) countries, what is the minimum possible value of \(n\)?
  5. Let \(ABC\) be a right-angled triangle with \(\angle B=90^{\circ}\). Let \(I\) be the incentre if \(ABC\). Extend \(AI\) and \(CI\); let them intersect \(BC\) in \(D\) and \(AB\) in \(E\) respectively. Draw a line perpendicular to \(AI\) at \(I\) to meet \(AC\) in \(J\), draw a line perpendicular to \(CI\) at \(I\) to meet \(AC\) at \(K\). Suppose \(DJ=EK\). Prove that \(BA=BC\).
  6. a) Given any natural number \(N\), prove that there exists a strictly increasing sequence of \(N\) positive integers in harmonic progression. b) Prove that there cannot exist a strictly increasing infinite sequence of positive integers which is in harmonic progression.

Telangana Region

  1. Let $ABC$ be a right angled triangle with $\angle B=90^{\circ}$. Let $I$ be the incentre of triangle $ABC$. Suppose $AI$ is extended to meet $BC$ at $F$ . The perpendicular on $AI$ at $I$ is extended to meet $AC$ at $E$ . Prove that $IE = IF$.
  2. Let $a,b,c$ be positive real numbers such that $$\frac{a}{1+a}+\frac{b}{1+b}+\frac{c}{1+c}=1.$$Prove that $abc \le \frac{1}{8}$.
  3. For any natural number $n$, expressed in base $10$, let $S(n)$ denote the sum of all digits of $n$. Find all positive integers $n$ such that $$n^3 = 8S(n)^3+6S(n)n+1.$$
  4. Find all $6$ digit natural numbers, which consist of only the digits $1,2,$ and $3$, in which $3$ occurs exactly twice and the number is divisible by $9$.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a right angled triangle with $\angle B=90^{\circ}$. Let $AD$ be the bisector of angle $A$ with $D$ on $BC$ . Let the circumcircle of triangle $ACD$ intersect $AB$ again at $E$; and let the circumcircle of triangle $ABD$ intersect $AC$ again at $F$. Let $K$ be the reflection of $E$ in the line $BC$ . Prove that $FK = BC$.
  6. Show that the infinite arithmetic progression $\{1,4,7,10 \ldots\}$ has infinitely many 3 -term sub sequences in harmonic progression such that for any two such triples $\{a_1, a_2 , a_3 \}$ and $\{b_1, b_2 ,b_3\}$ in harmonic progression , one has $$\frac{a_1} {b_1} \ne \frac {a_2}{b_2}$$

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MOlympiad: [Solutions] India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016
[Solutions] India Regional Mathematical Olympiad 2016
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