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[Shortlists & Solutions] Ego Loss May Occur 2018

Algebra

  1. Let $f:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be a bijective function. Does there always exist an infinite number of functions $g:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ such that $f(g(x))=g(f(x))$ for all $x\in\mathbb{R}$?
  2. Let $a_1,a_2,\dots,a_m$ be a finite sequence of positive integers. Prove that there exist nonnegative integers $b,c,$ and $N$ such that $$\left\lfloor \sum_{i=1}^m \sqrt{n+a_i} \right\rfloor =\left\lfloor \sqrt{bn+c} \right\rfloor$$holds for all integers $n>N.$
  3. Let $a, b, c,x, y, z$ be positive reals such that $\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}+\frac{1}{z}=1$. Prove that \[a^x+b^y+c^z\ge \frac{4abcxyz}{(x+y+z-3)^2}.\]
  4. Elmo calls a monic polynomial with real coefficients tasty if all of its coefficients are in the range $[-1,1]$. A monic polynomial $P$ with real coefficients and complex roots $\chi_1,\cdots,\chi_m$ (counted with multiplicity) is given to Elmo, and he discovers that there does not exist a monic polynomial $Q$ with real coefficients such that $PQ$ is tasty. Find all possible values of $\max\left(|\chi_1|,\cdots,|\chi_m|\right)$.

Combinatorics

  1. Let $n$ be a positive integer. There are $2018n+1$ cities in the Kingdom of Sellke Arabia. King Mark wants to build two-way roads that connect certain pairs of cities such that for each city $C$ and integer $1\le i\le 2018,$ there are exactly $n$ cities that are a distance $i$ away from $C.$ (The distance between two cities is the least number of roads on any path between the two cities.) For which $n$ is it possible for Mark to achieve this?
  2. We say that a positive integer $n$ is $m$-expressible if it is possible to get $n$ from some $m$ digits and the six operations $+,-,\times,\div$, exponentiation $^\wedge$, and concatenation $\oplus$. For example, $5625$ is $3$-expressible (in two ways): both $5\oplus (5^\wedge 4)$ and $(7\oplus 5)^\wedge 2$ yield $5625$.
  3. Does there exist a positive integer $N$ such that all positive integers with $N$ digits are $(N-1)$-expressible?
  4. A windmill is a closed line segment of unit length with a distinguished endpoint, the pivot. Let $S$ be a finite set of $n$ points such that the distance between any two points of $S$ is greater than $c$. A configuration of $n$ windmills is admissible if no two windmills intersect and each point of $S$ is used exactly once as a pivot.
  5. An admissible configuration of windmills is initially given to Geoff in the plane. In one operation Geoff can rotate any windmill around its pivot, either clockwise or counterclockwise and by any amount, as long as no two windmills intersect during the process. Show that Geoff can reach any other admissible configuration in finitely many operations, where
    a) $c = \sqrt 3$,
    b) $c = \sqrt 2$.

Geometry

  1. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with orthocenter $H$, and let $P$ be a point on the nine-point circle of $ABC$. Lines $BH, CH$ meet the opposite sides $AC, AB$ at $E, F$, respectively. Suppose that the circumcircles $(EHP), (FHP)$ intersect lines $CH, BH$ a second time at $Q,R$, respectively. Show that as $P$ varies along the nine-point circle of $ABC$, the line $QR$ passes through a fixed point.
  2. Let $ABC$ be a scalene triangle with orthocenter $H$ and circumcenter $O$. Let $P$ be the midpoint of $\overline{AH}$ and let $T$ be on line $BC$ with $\angle TAO=90^{\circ}$. Let $X$ be the foot of the altitude from $O$ onto line $PT$. Prove that the midpoint of $\overline{PX}$ lies on the nine-point circle of $\triangle ABC$. (The nine-point circle of $\triangle ABC$ is the unique circle passing through the following nine points: the midpoint of the sides, the feet of the altitudes, and the midpoints of $\overline{AH}$, $\overline{BH}$, and $\overline{CH}$.)
  3. Let $A$ be a point in the plane, and $\ell$ a line not passing through $A$. Evan does not have a straightedge, but instead has a special compass which has the ability to draw a circle through three distinct noncollinear points. (The center of the circle is not marked in this process.) Additionally, Evan can mark the intersections between two objects drawn, and can mark an arbitrary point on a given object or on the plane. To construct a point, Evan must have an algorithm which marks the point in finitely many steps.
    a) Can Evan construct the reflection of $A$ over $\ell$?.
    b) Can Evan construct the foot of the altitude from $A$ to $\ell$?.
  4. Let $ABCDEF$ be a hexagon inscribed in a circle $\Omega$ such that triangles $ACE$ and $BDF$ have the same orthocenter. Suppose that segments $BD$ and $DF$ intersect $CE$ at $X$ and $Y$, respectively. Show that there is a point common to $\Omega$, the circumcircle of $DXY$, and the line through $A$ perpendicular to $CE$.
  5. Let scalene triangle $ABC$ have altitudes $AD, BE, CF$ and circumcenter $O$. The circumcircles of $\triangle ABC$ and $\triangle ADO$ meet at $P \ne A$. The circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$ meets lines $PE$ at $X \ne P$ and $PF$ at $Y \ne P$. Prove that $XY \parallel BC$.

Number Theory

  1. Determine all nonempty finite sets of positive integers $\{a_1, \dots, a_n\}$ such that $a_1 \cdots a_n$ divides $(x + a_1) \cdots (x + a_n)$ for every positive integer $x$.
  2. Call a number $n$ good if it can be expressed as $2^x+y^2$ for where $x$ and $y$ are nonnegative integers.
    a) Prove that there exist infinitely many sets of $4$ consecutive good numbers.
    b) Find all sets of $5$ consecutive good numbers.
  3. Consider infinite sequences $a_1,a_2,\dots$ of positive integers satisfying $a_1=1$ and $$a_n \mid a_k+a_{k+1}+\dots+a_{k+n-1}$$for all positive integers $k$ and $n.$ For a given positive integer $m,$ find the maximum possible value of $a_{2m}.$
  4. Say a positive integer $n>1$ is $d$-coverable if for each non-empty subset $S\subseteq \{0, 1, \ldots, n-1\}$, there exists a polynomial $P$ with integer coefficients and degree at most $d$ such that $S$ is exactly the set of residues modulo $n$ that $P$ attains as it ranges over the integers. For each $n$, find the smallest $d$ such that $n$ is $d$-coverable, or prove no such $d$ exists.

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Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,3,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,2,An Giang,23,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,52,Bắc Giang,50,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,48,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,38,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,14,Bình Định,45,Bình Dương,23,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,6,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,13,Cà Mau,14,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,40,Cao Bằng,7,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,353,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,618,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,26,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,56,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi,1,Đề Thi HSG,1770,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,49,Đồng Tháp,52,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,17,ELMO,19,EMC,9,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,26,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,26,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,29,Hà Nội,232,Hà Tĩnh,73,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,50,Hải Phòng,42,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,33,HKUST,7,Hòa Bình,13,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,8,HSG 10,101,HSG 11,91,HSG 12,587,HSG 9,425,HSG Cấp Trường,78,HSG Quốc Gia,106,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hứa Thuần Phỏng,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,33,Hương Sơn,2,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,26,IMO,56,IMT,1,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,315,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,17,KHTN,54,Kiên Giang,64,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,18,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,33,Lạng Sơn,21,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,17,Lê Hải Châu,1,Lê Hải Khôi,1,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,42,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,455,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,229,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathLinks,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,11,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,10,MYM,227,MYTS,4,Nam Định,33,Nam Phi,1,Nam Trung Bộ,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,52,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,4,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,43,Ninh Thuận,15,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,99,Olympic 10/3,5,Olympic 11,92,Olympic 12,30,Olympic 24/3,7,Olympic 27/4,20,Olympic 30/4,69,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,12,Olympic Toán,304,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,30,Phú Yên,29,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,11,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,45,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,44,Quảng Nam,32,Quảng Ngãi,34,Quảng Ninh,43,Quảng Trị,27,Quỹ Tích,1,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,69,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,24,Shortlists,56,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,28,Sơn La,12,Spain,8,Star Education,5,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,6,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,29,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,39,Thái Nguyên,49,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,62,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,36,Tiền Giang,19,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TPHCM,126,Trà Vinh,6,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,34,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,25,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,14,Trường Đông,19,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,56,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Sinh 10,680,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,67,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,2,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,27,Vĩnh Long,21,Vĩnh Phúc,64,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,47,VNTST,22,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,26,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,20,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: [Shortlists & Solutions] Ego Loss May Occur 2018
[Shortlists & Solutions] Ego Loss May Occur 2018
MOlympiad
https://www.molympiad.net/2018/08/shortlist-elmo-2018.html
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/2018/08/shortlist-elmo-2018.html
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