[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2011


Algebra

  1. Given any set $A = \{a_1, a_2, a_3, a_4\}$ of four distinct positive integers, we denote the sum $a_1 +a_2 +a_3 +a_4$ by $s_A$. Let $n_A$ denote the number of pairs $(i, j)$ with $1 \leq i < j \leq 4$ for which $a_i +a_j$ divides $s_A$. Find all sets $A$ of four distinct positive integers which achieve the largest possible value of $n_A$.
  2. Determine all sequences $(x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_{2011})$ of positive integers, such that for every positive integer $n$ there exists an integer $a$ with \[\sum^{2011}_{j=1} j x^n_j = a^{n+1} + 1\]
  3. Determine all pairs $(f,g)$ of functions from the set of real numbers to itself that satisfy \[g(f(x+y)) = f(x) + (2x + y)g(y)\] for all real numbers $x$ and $y$.
  4. Determine all pairs $(f,g)$ of functions from the set of positive integers to itself that satisfy \[f^{g(n)+1}(n) + g^{f(n)}(n) = f(n+1) - g(n+1) + 1\] for every positive integer $n$. Here, $f^k(n)$ means $\underbrace{f(f(\ldots f)}_{k}(n) \ldots ))$.
  5. Prove that for every positive integer $n,$ the set $\{2,3,4,\ldots,3n+1\}$ can be partitioned into $n$ triples in such a way that the numbers from each triple are the lengths of the sides of some obtuse triangle.
  6. Let $f : \mathbb R \to \mathbb R$ be a real-valued function defined on the set of real numbers that satisfies \[f(x + y) \leq yf(x) + f(f(x))\]
  7. for all real numbers $x$ and $y$. Prove that $f(x) = 0$ for all $x \leq 0$.
  8. Let $a,b$ and $c$ be positive real numbers satisfying $a^2+b^2+c^2=3$ and $\min(a+b,b+c,c+a) > \sqrt{2}$. Prove that \[\frac{a}{(b+c-a)^2} + \frac{b}{(c+a-b)^2} + \frac{c}{(a+b-c)^2} \geq \frac{3}{(abc)^2}.\]

Combinatorics

  1. Let $n > 0$ be an integer. We are given a balance and $n$ weights of weight $2^0, 2^1, \cdots, 2^{n-1}$. We are to place each of the $n$ weights on the balance, one after another, in such a way that the right pan is never heavier than the left pan. At each step we choose one of the weights that has not yet been placed on the balance, and place it on either the left pan or the right pan, until all of the weights have been placed. Determine the number of ways in which this can be done.
  2. Suppose that $1000$ students are standing in a circle. Prove that there exists an integer $k$ with $100 \leq k \leq 300$ such that in this circle there exists a contiguous group of $2k$ students, for which the first half contains the same number of girls as the second half.
  3. Let $\mathcal{S}$ be a finite set of at least two points in the plane. Assume that no three points of $\mathcal S$ are collinear. A windmill is a process that starts with a line $\ell$ going through a single point $P \in \mathcal S$. The line rotates clockwise about the pivot $P$ until the first time that the line meets some other point belonging to $\mathcal S$. This point, $Q$, takes over as the new pivot, and the line now rotates clockwise about $Q$, until it next meets a point of $\mathcal S$. This process continues indefinitely. Show that we can choose a point $P$ in $\mathcal S$ and a line $\ell$ going through $P$ such that the resulting windmill uses each point of $\mathcal S$ as a pivot infinitely many times.
  4. Determine the greatest positive integer $k$ that satisfies the following property: The set of positive integers can be partitioned into $k$ subsets $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_k$ such that for all integers $n \geq 15$ and all $i \in \{1, 2, \ldots, k\}$ there exist two distinct elements of $A_i$ whose sum is $n.$
  5. Let $m$ be a positive integer, and consider a $m\times m$ checkerboard consisting of unit squares. At the centre of some of these unit squares there is an ant. At time $0$, each ant starts moving with speed $1$ parallel to some edge of the checkerboard. When two ants moving in the opposite directions meet, they both turn $90^{\circ}$ clockwise and continue moving with speed $1$. When more than $2$ ants meet, or when two ants moving in perpendicular directions meet, the ants continue moving in the same direction as before they met. When an ant reaches one of the edges of the checkerboard, it falls off and will not re-appear. Considering all possible starting positions, determine the latest possible moment at which the last ant falls off the checkerboard, or prove that such a moment does not necessarily exist.
  6. Let $n$ be a positive integer, and let $W = \ldots x_{-1}x_0x_1x_2 \ldots$ be an infinite periodic word, consisting of just letters $a$ and/or $b$. Suppose that the minimal period $N$ of $W$ is greater than $2^n$. A finite nonempty word $U$ is said to appear in $W$ if there exist indices $k \leq \ell$ such that $U=x_k x_{k+1} \ldots x_{\ell}$. A finite word $U$ is called ubiquitous if the four words $Ua$, $Ub$, $aU$, and $bU$ all appear in $W$. Prove that there are at least $n$ ubiquitous finite nonempty words.
  7. On a square table of $2011$ by $2011$ cells we place a finite number of napkins that each cover a square of $52$ by $52$ cells. In each cell we write the number of napkins covering it, and we record the maximal number $k$ of cells that all contain the same nonzero number. Considering all possible napkin configurations, what is the largest value of $k$?

Geometry

  1. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle. Let $\omega$ be a circle whose centre $L$ lies on the side $BC$. Suppose that $\omega$ is tangent to $AB$ at $B'$ and $AC$ at $C'$. Suppose also that the circumcentre $O$ of triangle $ABC$ lies on the shorter arc $B'C'$ of $\omega$. Prove that the circumcircle of $ABC$ and $\omega$ meet at two points.
  2. Let $A_1A_2A_3A_4$ be a non-cyclic quadrilateral. Let $O_1$ and $r_1$ be the circumcentre and the circumradius of the triangle $A_2A_3A_4$. Define $O_2,O_3,O_4$ and $r_2,r_3,r_4$ in a similar way. Prove that \[\frac{1}{O_1A_1^2-r_1^2}+\frac{1}{O_2A_2^2-r_2^2}+\frac{1}{O_3A_3^2-r_3^2}+\frac{1}{O_4A_4^2-r_4^2}=0.\]
  3. Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral whose sides $AD$ and $BC$ are not parallel. Suppose that the circles with diameters $AB$ and $CD$ meet at points $E$ and $F$ inside the quadrilateral. Let $\omega_E$ be the circle through the feet of the perpendiculars from $E$ to the lines $AB,BC$ and $CD$. Let $\omega_F$ be the circle through the feet of the perpendiculars from $F$ to the lines $CD,DA$ and $AB$. Prove that the midpoint of the segment $EF$ lies on the line through the two intersections of $\omega_E$ and $\omega_F$.
  4. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with circumcircle $\Omega$. Let $B_0$ be the midpoint of $AC$ and let $C_0$ be the midpoint of $AB$. Let $D$ be the foot of the altitude from $A$ and let $G$ be the centroid of the triangle $ABC$. Let $\omega$ be a circle through $B_0$ and $C_0$ that is tangent to the circle $\Omega$ at a point $X\not= A$. Prove that the points $D,G$ and $X$ are collinear.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with incentre $I$ and circumcircle $\omega$. Let $D$ and $E$ be the second intersection points of $\omega$ with $AI$ and $BI$, respectively. The chord $DE$ meets $AC$ at a point $F$, and $BC$ at a point $G$. Let $P$ be the intersection point of the line through $F$ parallel to $AD$ and the line through $G$ parallel to $BE$. Suppose that the tangents to $\omega$ at $A$ and $B$ meet at a point $K$. Prove that the three lines $AE,BD$ and $KP$ are either parallel or concurrent.
  6. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB=AC$ and let $D$ be the midpoint of $AC$. The angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects the circle through $D,B$ and $C$ at the point $E$ inside the triangle $ABC$. The line $BD$ intersects the circle through $A,E$ and $B$ in two points $B$ and $F$. The lines $AF$ and $BE$ meet at a point $I$, and the lines $CI$ and $BD$ meet at a point $K$. Show that $I$ is the incentre of triangle $KAB$.
  7. Let $ABCDEF$ be a convex hexagon all of whose sides are tangent to a circle $\omega$ with centre $O$. Suppose that the circumcircle of triangle $ACE$ is concentric with $\omega$. Let $J$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $B$ to $CD$. Suppose that the perpendicular from $B$ to $DF$ intersects the line $EO$ at a point $K$. Let $L$ be the foot of the perpendicular from $K$ to $DE$. Prove that $DJ=DL$.
  8. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $\ell$ be a tangent line to $\Gamma$, and let $\ell_a, \ell_b$ and $\ell_c$ be the lines obtained by reflecting $\ell$ in the lines $BC$, $CA$ and $AB$, respectively. Show that the circumcircle of the triangle determined by the lines $\ell_a, \ell_b$ and $\ell_c$ is tangent to the circle $\Gamma$.

Number Theory

  1. For any integer $d > 0,$ let $f(d)$ be the smallest possible integer that has exactly $d$ positive divisors (so for example we have $f(1)=1, f(5)=16,$ and $f(6)=12$). Prove that for every integer $k \geq 0$ the number $f\left(2^k\right)$ divides $f\left(2^{k+1}\right).$
  2. Consider a polynomial $P(x) = \prod^9_{j=1}(x+d_j),$ where $d_1, d_2, \ldots d_9$ are nine distinct integers. Prove that there exists an integer $N,$ such that for all integers $x \geq N$ the number $P(x)$ is divisible by a prime number greater than 20.
  3. Let $n \geq 1$ be an odd integer. Determine all functions $f$ from the set of integers to itself, such that for all integers $x$ and $y$ the difference $f(x)-f(y)$ divides $x^n-y^n.$
  4. For each positive integer $k,$ let $t(k)$ be the largest odd divisor of $k.$ Determine all positive integers $a$ for which there exists a positive integer $n,$ such that all the differences $$t(n+a)-t(n),\quad t(n+a+1)-t(n+1), \quad \ldots, \quad t(n+2a-1)-t(n+a-1)$ are divisible by 4.
  5. Let $f$ be a function from the set of integers to the set of positive integers. Suppose that, for any two integers $m$ and $n$, the difference $f(m) - f(n)$ is divisible by $f(m- n)$. Prove that, for all integers $m$ and $n$ with $f(m) \leq f(n)$, the number $f(n)$ is divisible by $f(m)$.
  6. Let $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ be two polynomials with integer coefficients, such that no nonconstant polynomial with rational coefficients divides both $P(x)$ and $Q(x).$ Suppose that for every positive integer $n$ the integers $P(n)$ and $Q(n)$ are positive, and $2^{Q(n)}-1$ divides $3^{P(n)}-1.$ Prove that $Q(x)$ is a constant polynomial.
  7. Let $p$ be an odd prime number. For every integer $a,$ define the number $$S_a = \sum^{p-1}_{j=1} \frac{a^j}{j}.$$ Let $m,n \in \mathbb{Z},$ such that $S_3 + S_4 - 3S_2 = \frac{m}{n}.$ Prove that $p$ divides $m.$
  8. Let $k \in \mathbb{Z}^+$ and set $n=2^k+1.$ Prove that $n$ is a prime number if and only if the following holds: there is a permutation $a_{1},\ldots,a_{n-1}$ of the numbers $1,2, \ldots, n-1$ and a sequence of integers $g_{1},\ldots,g_{n-1},$ such that $n$ divides $g^{a_i}_i - a_{i+1}$ for every $i \in \{1,2,\ldots,n-1\},$ where we set $a_n = a_1.$
MOlympiad.NET là dự án thu thập và phát hành các đề thi tuyển sinh và học sinh giỏi toán. Quý bạn đọc muốn giúp chúng tôi chỉnh sửa đề thi này, xin hãy để lại bình luận facebook (có thể đính kèm hình ảnh) hoặc google (có thể sử dụng $\LaTeX$) bên dưới. BBT rất mong bạn đọc ủng hộ UPLOAD đề thi và đáp án mới hoặc liên hệ
Chúng tôi nhận tất cả các định dạng của tài liệu: $\TeX$, PDF, WORD, IMG,...



Name

Abel Albania AMM Amsterdam An Giang Andrew Wiles Anh APMO Austria (Áo) Ba Đình Ba Lan Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu Bắc Bộ Bắc Giang Bắc Kạn Bạc Liêu Bắc Ninh Bắc Trung Bộ Bài Toán Hay Balkan Baltic Way BAMO Bất Đẳng Thức Bến Tre Benelux Bình Định Bình Dương Bình Phước Bình Thuận Birch BMO Booklet Bosnia Herzegovina BoxMath Brazil British Bùi Đắc Hiên Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ Bùi Văn Tuyên Bùi Xuân Diệu Bulgaria Buôn Ma Thuột BxMO Cà Mau Cần Thơ Canada Cao Bằng Cao Quang Minh Câu Chuyện Toán Học Caucasus CGMO China - Trung Quốc Chọn Đội Tuyển Chu Tuấn Anh Chuyên Đề Chuyên Sư Phạm Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo Collection College Mathematic Concours Cono Sur Contest Correspondence Cosmin Poahata Crux Czech-Polish-Slovak Đà Nẵng Đa Thức Đại Số Đắk Lắk Đắk Nông Đan Phượng Danube Đào Thái Hiệp ĐBSCL Đề Thi Đề Thi HSG Đề Thi JMO Điện Biên Định Lý Định Lý Beaty Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh Do Thái Doãn Quang Tiến Đoàn Quỳnh Đoàn Văn Trung Đống Đa Đồng Nai Đồng Tháp Du Hiền Vinh Đức Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ E-Book EGMO ELMO EMC Epsilon Estonian Euler Evan Chen Fermat Finland Forum Of Geometry Furstenberg G. Polya Gặp Gỡ Toán Học Gauss GDTX Geometry Gia Lai Gia Viễn Giải Tích Hàm Giảng Võ Giới hạn Goldbach Hà Giang Hà Lan Hà Nam Hà Nội Hà Tĩnh Hà Trung Kiên Hải Dương Hải Phòng Hậu Giang Hậu Lộc Hilbert Hình Học HKUST Hòa Bình Hoài Nhơn Hoàng Bá Minh Hoàng Minh Quân Hodge Hojoo Lee HOMC HongKong HSG 10 HSG 10 Bắc Giang HSG 10 Thái Nguyên HSG 11 HSG 11 Bắc Giang HSG 11 Thái Nguyên HSG 12 HSG 12 2010-2011 HSG 12 2011-2012 HSG 12 2012-2013 HSG 12 2013-2014 HSG 12 2014-2015 HSG 12 2015-2016 HSG 12 2016-2017 HSG 12 2017-2018 HSG 12 2018-2019 HSG 12 2019-2020 HSG 12 2020-2021 HSG 12 2021-2022 HSG 12 Bắc Giang HSG 12 Đồng Tháp HSG 12 Quảng Nam HSG 12 Quảng Ninh HSG 12 Thái Nguyên HSG 9 HSG 9 2010-2011 HSG 9 2011-2012 HSG 9 2012-2013 HSG 9 2013-2014 HSG 9 2014-2015 HSG 9 2015-2016 HSG 9 2016-2017 HSG 9 2017-2018 HSG 9 2018-2019 HSG 9 2019-2020 HSG 9 2020-2021 HSG 9 2021-202 HSG 9 2021-2022 HSG 9 Bắc Giang HSG 9 Đồng Tháp HSG 9 Quảng Nam HSG 9 Quảng Ninh HSG Cấp Trường HSG Quốc Gia HSG Quốc Tế Hứa Lâm Phong Hứa Thuần Phỏng Hùng Vương Hưng Yên Hương Sơn Huỳnh Kim Linh Hy Lạp IMC IMO IMT India - Ấn Độ Inequality InMC International Iran Jakob JBMO Jewish Journal Junior K2pi Kazakhstan Khánh Hòa KHTN Kiên Giang Kim Liên Kon Tum Korea - Hàn Quốc Kvant Kỷ Yếu Lai Châu Lâm Đồng Lạng Sơn Langlands Lào Cai Lê Hải Châu Lê Hải Khôi Lê Hoành Phò Lê Khánh Sỹ Lê Minh Cường Lê Phúc Lữ Lê Phương Lê Quý Đôn Lê Viết Hải Lê Việt Hưng Leibniz Long An Lớp 10 Lớp 10 Chuyên Lớp 10 Không Chuyên Lớp 11 Lục Ngạn Lượng giác Lương Tài Lưu Giang Nam Lý Thánh Tông Macedonian Malaysia Margulis Mark Levi Mathematical Excalibur Mathematical Reflections Mathematics Magazine Mathematics Today Mathley MathLinks MathProblems Journal Mathscope MathsVN MathVN MEMO Metropolises Mexico MIC Michael Guillen Mochizuki Moldova Moscow MYM MYTS Nam Định Nam Phi National Nesbitt Newton Nghệ An Ngô Bảo Châu Ngô Việt Hải Ngọc Huyền Nguyễn Anh Tuyến Nguyễn Bá Đang Nguyễn Đình Thi Nguyễn Đức Tấn Nguyễn Đức Thắng Nguyễn Duy Khương Nguyễn Duy Tùng Nguyễn Hữu Điển Nguyễn Mình Hà Nguyễn Minh Tuấn Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương Nguyễn Phú Khánh Nguyễn Phúc Tăng Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng Nguyễn Quang Sơn Nguyễn Tài Chung Nguyễn Tăng Vũ Nguyễn Tất Thu Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng Nguyễn Trung Tuấn Nguyễn Tuấn Anh Nguyễn Văn Huyện Nguyễn Văn Mậu Nguyễn Văn Nho Nguyễn Văn Quý Nguyễn Văn Thông Nguyễn Việt Anh Nguyễn Vũ Lương Nhật Bản Nhóm $\LaTeX$ Nhóm Toán Ninh Bình Ninh Thuận Nội Suy Lagrange Nội Suy Newton Nordic Olympiad Corner Olympiad Preliminary Olympic 10 Olympic 10/3 Olympic 11 Olympic 12 Olympic 24/3 Olympic 24/3 Quảng Nam Olympic 27/4 Olympic 30/4 Olympic KHTN Olympic Sinh Viên Olympic Tháng 4 Olympic Toán Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp PAMO Phạm Đình Đồng Phạm Đức Tài Phạm Huy Hoàng Pham Kim Hung Phạm Quốc Sang Phan Huy Khải Phan Thành Nam Pháp Philippines Phú Thọ Phú Yên Phùng Hồ Hải Phương Trình Hàm Phương Trình Pythagoras Pi Polish Problems PT-HPT PTNK Putnam Quảng Bình Quảng Nam Quảng Ngãi Quảng Ninh Quảng Trị Quỹ Tích Riemann RMM RMO Romania Romanian Mathematical Russia Sách Thường Thức Toán Sách Toán Sách Toán Cao Học Sách Toán THCS Saudi Arabia - Ả Rập Xê Út Scholze Serbia Sharygin Shortlists Simon Singh Singapore Số Học - Tổ Hợp Sóc Trăng Sơn La Spain Star Education Stars of Mathematics Swinnerton-Dyer Talent Search Tăng Hải Tuân Tạp Chí Tập San Tây Ban Nha Tây Ninh Thạch Hà Thái Bình Thái Nguyên Thái Vân Thanh Hóa THCS Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ Thomas J. Mildorf THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn THPTQG THTT Thừa Thiên Huế Tiền Giang Tin Tức Toán Học Titu Andreescu Toán 12 Toán Cao Cấp Toán Chuyên Toán Rời Rạc Toán Tuổi Thơ Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân TOT TPHCM Trà Vinh Trắc Nghiệm Trắc Nghiệm Toán Trại Hè Trại Hè Hùng Vương Trại Hè Phương Nam Trần Đăng Phúc Trần Minh Hiền Trần Nam Dũng Trần Phương Trần Quang Hùng Trần Quốc Anh Trần Quốc Luật Trần Quốc Nghĩa Trần Tiến Tự Trịnh Đào Chiến Trường Đông Trường Hè Trường Thu Trường Xuân TST TST 2010-2011 TST 2011-2012 TST 2012-2013 TST 2013-2014 TST 2014-2015 TST 2015-2016 TST 2016-2017 TST 2017-2018 TST 2018-2019 TST 2019-2020 TST 2020-2021 TST 2021-2022 TST Bắc Giang TST Đồng Tháp TST Quảng Nam TST Quảng Ninh TST Thái Nguyên Tuyên Quang Tuyển Sinh Tuyển Sinh 10 Tuyển Sinh 10 Đồng Tháp Tuyển Sinh 10 Quảng Nam Tuyển Sinh 10 Quảng Ninh Tuyển Sinh 10 Thái Nguyên Tuyển Sinh 2010-2011 Tuyển Sinh 2011-2012 Tuyển Sinh 2011-2022 Tuyển Sinh 2012-2013 Tuyển Sinh 2013-2014 Tuyển Sinh 2014-2015 Tuyển Sinh 2015-2016 Tuyển Sinh 2016-2017 Tuyển Sinh 2017-2018 Tuyển Sinh 2018-2019 Tuyển Sinh 2019-2020 Tuyển Sinh 2020-2021 Tuyển Sinh 2021-202 Tuyển Sinh 2021-2022 Tuyển Sinh THPT Bắc Giang Tuyển Tập Tuymaada UK - Anh Undergraduate USA - Mỹ USA TSTST USAJMO USATST USEMO Uzbekistan Vasile Cîrtoaje Vật Lý Viện Toán Học Vietnam Viktor Prasolov VIMF Vinh Vĩnh Long Vĩnh Phúc Virginia Tech VLTT VMEO VMF VMO VNTST Võ Anh Khoa Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn Võ Thành Văn Vojtěch Jarník Vũ Hữu Bình Vương Trung Dũng WFNMC Journal Wiles Yên Bái Yên Định Yên Thành Zhautykov Zhou Yuan Zhe
false
ltr
item
MOlympiad.NET: [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2011
[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2011
MOlympiad.NET
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/imo-2011-shortlists.html
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/imo-2011-shortlists.html
true
2506595080985176441
UTF-8
Not found any posts Not found any related posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU Tag ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Contents See also related Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED
PLEASE FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS TO VIEW THIS CONTENT
NỘI DUNG CAO CẤP NÀY ĐÃ BỊ KHÓA
XIN HÃY LÀM THEO HƯỚNG DẪN ĐỂ XEM NỘI DUNG NÀY
STEP 1: SHARE THIS ARTICLE TO A SOCIAL NETWORK
BƯỚC 1: CHIA SẺ BÀI VIẾT NÀY LÊN MẠNG XÃ HỘI
STEP 2: CLICK THE LINK ON YOUR SOCIAL NETWORK
BƯỚC 2: BẤM VÀO ĐƯỜNG DẪN TRÊN MẠNG XÃ HỘI CỦA BẠN