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[Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2018 (Correspondence Round)

  1. Three circles lie inside a square. Each of them touches externally two remaining circles. Also each circle touches two sides of the square. Prove that two of these circles are congruent. 
  2. A cyclic quadrilateral $ABCD$ is given. The lines $AB$ and $DC$ meet at point $E$, and the lines $BC$ and $AD$ meet at point $F$. Let $I$ be the incenter of triangle $AED$, and a ray with origin $F$ be perpendicular to the bisector of angle $\angle AID$. In which ratio this ray dissects the angle $AFB$? 
  3. Let $AL$ be the bisector of triangle $ABC$, $D$ be its midpoint, and $E$ be the projection of $D$ to $AB$. It is known that $AC = 3AE$. Prove that $CEL$ is an isosceles triangle. 
  4. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral. A point $P$ moves along the arc $AD$ which does not contain $B$ and $C$. A fixed line $l$, perpendicular to $BC$, meets the rays $BP$, $CP$ at points $B_0$, $C_0$ respectively. Prove that the tangent at $P$ to the circumcircle of triangle $PB_0C_0$ passes through some fixed point. 
  5. The vertex $C$ of equilateral triangles $ABC$ and $CDE$ lies on the segment $AE$, and the vertices $B$ and $D$ lie on the same side with respect to this segment. The circumcircles of these triangles centered at $O_1$ and $O_2$ meet for the second time at point $F$. The lines $O_1O_2$ and $AD$ meet at point $K$. Prove that $AK = BF$. 
  6. Let $CH$ be the altitude of a right-angled triangle $ABC$ ($\angle C = 90^{\circ}$) with $BC = 2AC$. Let $O_1$, $O_2$ and $O$ be the incenters of triangles $ACH$, $BCH$ and $ABC$ respectively, and $H_1$, $H_2$, $H_0$ be the projections of $O_1$, $O_2$, $O$ respectively to $AB$. Prove that $H_1H = HH_0 = H_0H_2$. 
  7. Let $E$ be a common point of circles $\omega _1$ and $\omega _2$. Let $AB$ be a common tangent to these circles, and $CD$ be a line parallel to $AB$, such that $A$ and $C$ lie on $\omega _1$, $B$ and $D$ lie on $\omega _2$. The circles $ABE$ and $CDE$ meet for the second time at point $F$. Prove that $F$ bisects one of arcs $CD$ of circle $CDE$. 
  8. Restore a triangle $ABC$ by the Nagel point, the vertex $B$ and the foot of the altitude from this vertex. 
  9. A square is inscribed into an acute-angled triangle: two vertices of this square lie on the same side of the triangle and two remaining vertices lies on two remaining sides. Two similar squares are constructed for the remaining sides. Prove that three segments congruent to the sides of these squares can be the sides of an acute-angled triangle. 
  10. In the plane, $2018$ points are given such that all distances between them are different. For each point, mark the closest one of the remaining points. What is the minimal number of marked points? 
  11. Let $I$ be the incenter of a nonisosceles triangle $ABC$. Prove that there exists a unique pair of points $M$, $N$ lying on the sides $AC$, $BC$ respectively, such that $\angle AIM = \angle BIN$ and $MN|| AB$. 
  12. Let $BD$ be the external bisector of a triangle $ABC$ with $AB > BC$; $K$ and $K_1$ be the touching points of side $AC$ with the incircle and the excircle centered at $I$ and $I_1$ respectively. The lines $BK$ and $DI_1$ meet at point $X$, and the lines $BK_1$ and $DI$ meet at point $Y$. Prove that $XY \perp AC$. 
  13. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral, and $M$, $N$ be the midpoints of arcs $AB$ and $CD$ respectively. Prove that $MN$ bisects the segment between the incenters of triangles $ABC$ and $ADC$. 
  14. Let $ABC$ be a right-angled triangle with $\angle C = 90^{\circ}$, $K$, $L$, $M$ be the midpoints of sides $AB$, $BC$, $CA$ respectively, and $N$ be a point of side $AB$. The line $CN$ meets $KM$ and $KL$ at points $P$ and $Q$ respectively. Points $S$, $T$ lying on $AC$ and $BC$ respectively are such that $APQS$ and $BPQT$ are cyclic quadrilaterals. Prove that
    a) if $CN$ is a bisector, then $CN$, $ML$ and $ST$ concur;
    b) if $CN$ is an altitude, then $ST$ bisects $ML$. 
  15. The altitudes $AH_1$, $BH_2$, $CH_3$ of an acute-angled triangle $ABC$ meet at point $H$. Points $P$ and $Q$ are the reflections of $H_2$ and $H_3$ with respect to $H$. The circumcircle of triangle $PH_1Q$ meets for the second time $BH_2$ and $CH_3$ at points $R$ and $S$. Prove that $RS$ is a medial line of triangle $ABC$. 
  16. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB < BC$. The bisector of angle $C$ meets the line parallel to $AC$ and passing through $B$, at point $P$. The tangent at $B$ to the circumcircle of $ABC$ meets this bisector at point $R$. Let $R'$ be the reflection of $R$ with respect to $AB$. Prove that $\angle R'P B = \angle RPA$. 
  17. Let each of circles $\alpha, \beta, \gamma$ touches two remaining circles externally, and all of them touche a circle $\Omega$ internally at points $A_1$, $B_1$, $C_1$ respectively. The common internal tangent to $\alpha$ and $\beta$ meets the arc $A_1B_1$ not containing $C_1$ at point $C_2$. Points $A_2$, $B_2$ are defined similarly. Prove that the lines $A_1A_2$, $B_1B_2$, $C_1C_2$ concur. 
  18. Let $C_1$, $A_1$, $B_1$ be points on sides $AB$, $BC$, $CA$ of triangle $ABC$, such that $AA_1$, $BB_1$, $CC_1$ concur. The rays $B_1A_1$ and $B_1C_1$ meet the circumcircle of the triangle at points $A_2$ and $C_2$ respectively. Prove that $A$, $C$, the common point of $A_2C_2$ and $BB_1$ and the midpoint of $A_2C_2$ are concyclic. 
  19. Let a triangle $ABC$ be given. On a ruler three segment congruent to the sides of this triangle are marked. Using this ruler construct the orthocenter of the triangle formed by the tangency points of the sides of $ABC$ with its incircle. 
  20. Let the incircle of a nonisosceles triangle $ABC$ touch $AB$, $AC$ and $BC$ at points $D$, $E$ and $F$ respectively. The corresponding excircle touches the side $BC$ at point $N$. Let $T$ be the common point of $AN$ and the incircle, closest to $N$, and $K$ be the common point of $DE$ and $FT$. Prove that $AK||BC$. 
  21. In the plane a line $l$ and a point $A$ outside it are given. Find the locus of the incenters of acute-angled triangles having a vertex $A$ and an opposite side lying on $l$. 
  22. Six circles of unit radius lie in the plane so that the distance between the centers of any two of them is greater than $d$. What is the least value of $d$ such that there always exists a straight line which does not intersect any of the circles and separates the circles into two groups of three? 
  23. The plane is divided into convex heptagons with diameters less than $1$. Prove that an arbitrary disc with radius $200$ intersects most than a billion of them. 
  24. Let $ABC$ be a triangle, and $M$ an interior point such that $\angle MAB=10^\circ$, $\angle MBA=20^\circ$, $\angle MAC=40^\circ$ and $\angle MCA=30^\circ$. Prove that the triangle is isosceles.

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    MOlympiad: [Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2018 (Correspondence Round)
    [Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2018 (Correspondence Round)
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