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[Solutions] Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2017

Individual Competition

  1. Determine all functions $f : \mathbb{R} \to \mathbb{R}$ satisfying $$f(x^2 + f(x)f(y)) = xf(x + y)$$for all real numbers $x$ and $y$.
  2. Let $n \geq 3$ be an integer. A labelling of the $n$ vertices, the $n$ sides and the interior of a regular $n$-gon by $2n + 1$ distinct integers is called memorable if the following conditions hold
    • Each side has a label that is the arithmetic mean of the labels of its endpoints.
    • The interior of the $n$-gon has a label that is the arithmetic mean of the labels of all the vertices.
    Determine all integers $n \geq 3$ for which there exists a memorable labelling of a regular $n$-gon consisting of $2n + 1$ consecutive integers.
  3. Let $ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon. Let $P$ be the intersection of the lines $CE$ and $BD$. Assume that $\angle PAD = \angle ACB$ and $\angle CAP = \angle EDA$. Prove that the circumcentres of the triangles $ABC$ and $ADE$ are collinear with $P$.
  4. Determine the smallest possible value of $$|2^m - 181^n|,$$where $m$ and $n$ are positive integers.

Team Competition

  1. Determine all pairs of polynomials $(P, Q)$ with real coefficients satisfying $$P(x + Q(y)) = Q(x + P(y))$$ for all real numbers $x$ and $y$.
  2. Determine the smallest possible real constant $C$ such that the inequality $$|x^3 + y^3 + z^3 + 1| \leq C|x^5 + y^5 + z^5 + 1|$$holds for all real numbers $x, y, z$ satisfying $x + y + z = -1$.
  3. There is a lamp on each cell of a $2017 \times 2017$ board. Each lamp is either on or off. A lamp is called bad if it has an even number of neighbours that are on. What is the smallest possible number of bad lamps on such a board? (Two lamps are neighbours if their respective cells share a side.)
  4. Let $n \geq 3$ be an integer. A sequence $P_1, P_2, \ldots, P_n$ of distinct points in the plane is called good if no three of them are collinear, the polyline $P_1P_2 \ldots P_n$ is non-self-intersecting and the triangle $P_iP_{i + 1}P_{i + 2}$ is oriented counterclockwise for every $i = 1, 2, \ldots, n - 2$. For every integer $n \geq 3$ determine the greatest possible integer $k$ with the following property: there exist $n$ distinct points $A_1, A_2, \ldots, A_n$ in the plane for which there are $k$ distinct permutations $\sigma : \{1, 2, \ldots, n\} \to \{1, 2, \ldots, n\}$ such that $A_{\sigma(1)}, A_{\sigma(2)}, \ldots, A_{\sigma(n)}$ is good. (A polyline $P_1P_2 \ldots P_n$ consists of the segments $P_1P_2, P_2P_3, \ldots, P_{n - 1}P_n$.)
  5. Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle with $AB > AC$ and circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let $M$ be the midpoint of the shorter arc $BC$ of $\Gamma$, and let $D$ be the intersection of the rays $AC$ and $BM$. Let $E \neq C$ be the intersection of the internal bisector of the angle $ACB$ and the circumcircle of the triangle $BDC$. Let us assume that $E$ is inside the triangle $ABC$ and there is an intersection $N$ of the line $DE$ and the circle $\Gamma$ such that $E$ is the midpoint of the segment $DN$. Show that $N$ is the midpoint of the segment $I_B I_C$, where $I_B$ and $I_C$ are the excentres of $ABC$ opposite to $B$ and $C$, respectively.
  6. Let $ABC$ be an acute-angled triangle with $AB \neq AC$, circumcentre $O$ and circumcircle $\Gamma$. Let the tangents to $\Gamma$ at $B$ and $C$ meet each other at $D$, and let the line $AO$ intersect $BC$ at $E$. Denote the midpoint of $BC$ by $M$ and let $AM$ meet $\Gamma$ again at $N \neq A$. Finally, let $F \neq A$ be a point on $\Gamma$ such that $A, M, E$ and $F$ are concyclic. Prove that $FN$ bisects the segment $MD$.
  7. Determine all integers $n \geq 2$ such that there exists a permutation $x_0, x_1, \ldots, x_{n - 1}$ of the numbers $0, 1, \ldots, n - 1$ with the property that the $n$ numbers $$x_0, \hspace{0.3cm} x_0 + x_1, \hspace{0.3cm} \ldots, \hspace{0.3cm} x_0 + x_1 + \ldots + x_{n - 1}$$are pairwise distinct modulo $n$.
  8. For an integer $n \geq 3$ we define the sequence $\alpha_1, \alpha_2, \ldots, \alpha_k$ as the sequence of exponents in the prime factorization of $n! = p_1^{\alpha_1}p_2^{\alpha_2} \ldots p_k^{\alpha_k}$, where $p_1 < p_2 < \ldots < p_k$ are primes. Determine all integers $n \geq 3$ for which $\alpha_1, \alpha_2, \ldots, \alpha_k$ is a geometric progression.

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MOlympiad: [Solutions] Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2017
[Solutions] Middle European Mathematical Olympiad 2017
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