$hide=mobile

[Solutions] William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition 2011

  1. Define a growing spiral in the plane to be a sequence of points with integer coordinates $P_0=(0,0),P_1,\dots,P_n$ such that $n\ge 2$ and:
    • The directed line segments $P_0P_1$, $P_1P_2$, $\dots$, $P_{n-1}P_n$ are in successive coordinate directions east (for $P_0P_1$), north, west, south, east, etc.
    • The lengths of these line segments are positive and strictly increasing.
    \[\begin{picture}(200,180)

\put(20,100){\line(1,0){160}}
\put(100,10){\line(0,1){170}}

\put(0,97){West}
\put(180,97){East}
\put(90,0){South}
\put(90,180){North}

\put(100,100){\circle{1}}\put(100,100){\circle{2}}\put(100,100){\circle{3}}
\put(115,100){\circle{1}}\put(115,100){\circle{2}}\put(115,100){\circle{3}}
\put(115,130){\circle{1}}\put(115,130){\circle{2}}\put(115,130){\circle{3}}
\put(40,130){\circle{1}}\put(40,130){\circle{2}}\put(40,130){\circle{3}}
\put(40,20){\circle{1}}\put(40,20){\circle{2}}\put(40,20){\circle{3}}
\put(170,20){\circle{1}}\put(170,20){\circle{2}}\put(170,20){\circle{3}}

\multiput(100,99.5)(0,.5){3}{\line(1,0){15}}
\multiput(114.5,100)(.5,0){3}{\line(0,1){30}}
\multiput(40,129.5)(0,.5){3}{\line(1,0){75}}
\multiput(39.5,20)(.5,0){3}{\line(0,1){110}}
\multiput(40,19.5)(0,.5){3}{\line(1,0){130}}

\put(102,90){P0}
\put(117,90){P1}
\put(117,132){P2}
\put(28,132){P3}
\put(30,10){P4}
\put(172,10){P5}

\end{picture}\]
    How many of the points $(x,y)$ with integer coordinates $0\le x\le 2011$, $0\le y\le 2011$ cannot be the last point, $P_n,$ of any growing spiral?
  2. Let $a_1,a_2,\dots$ and $b_1,b_2,\dots$ be sequences of positive real numbers such that $a_1=b_1=1$ and $b_n=b_{n-1}a_n-2$ for $n=2,3,\dots.$ Assume that the sequence $(b_j)$ is bounded. Prove that \[S=\sum_{n=1}^{\infty}\frac1{a_1\cdots a_n}\] converges, and evaluate $S.$
  3. Find a real number $c$ and a positive number $L$ for which \[\lim_{r\to\infty}\frac{r^c\int_0^{\pi/2}x^r\sin x\,dx}{\int_0^{\pi/2}x^r\cos x\,dx}=L.\]
  4. For which positive integers $n$ is there an $n\times n$ matrix with integer entries such that every dot product of a row with itself is even, while every dot product of two different rows is odd?
  5. Let $F:\mathbb{R}^2\to\mathbb{R}$ and $g:\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{R}$ be twice continuously differentiable functions with the following properties
    • $F(u,u)=0$ for every $u\in\mathbb{R};$
    • for every $x\in\mathbb{R},g(x)>0$ and $x^2g(x)\le 1;$ 
    • for every $(u,v)\in\mathbb{R}^2,$ the vector $\nabla F(u,v)$ is either $\mathbf{0}$ or parallel to the vector $\langle g(u),-g(v)\rangle.$
    Prove that there exists a constant $C$ such that for every $n\ge 2$ and any $x_1,\dots,x_{n+1}\in\mathbb{R},$ we have \[\min_{i\ne j}|F(x_i,x_j)|\le\frac{C}{n}.\]
  6. Let $G$ be an abelian group with $n$ elements, and let \[\{g_1=e,g_2,\dots,g_k\}\subsetneq G\] be a (not necessarily minimal) set of distinct generators of $G.$ A special die, which randomly selects one of the elements $g_1,g_2,\dots,g_k$ with equal probability, is rolled $m$ times and the selected elements are multiplied to produce an element $g\in G.$ Prove that there exists a real number $b\in(0,1)$ such that \[\lim_{m\to\infty}\frac1{b^{2m}}\sum_{x\in G}\left(\mathrm{Prob}(g=x)-\frac1n\right)^2\] is positive and finite.
  7. Let $h$ and $k$ be positive integers. Prove that for every $\varepsilon >0,$ there are positive integers $m$ and $n$ such that \[\varepsilon < \left|h\sqrt{m}-k\sqrt{n}\right|<2\varepsilon.\]
  8. Let $S$ be the set of all ordered triples $(p,q,r)$ of prime numbers for which at least one rational number $x$ satisfies $px^2+qx+r=0.$ Which primes appear in seven or more elements of $S?$
  9. Let $f$ and $g$ be (real-valued) functions defined on an open interval containing $0,$ with $g$ nonzero and continuous at $0.$ If $fg$ and $f/g$ are differentiable at $0,$ must $f$ be differentiable at $0?$
  10. In a tournament, 2011 players meet 2011 times to play a multiplayer game. Every game is played by all 2011 players together and ends with each of the players either winning or losing. The standings are kept in two $2011\times 2011$ matrices, $T=(T_{hk})$ and $W=(W_{hk}).$ Initially, $T=W=0.$ After every game, for every $(h,k)$ (including for $h=k),$ if players $h$ and $k$ tied (that is, both won or both lost), the entry $T_{hk}$ is increased by $1,$ while if player $h$ won and player $k$ lost, the entry $W_{hk}$ is increased by $1$ and $W_{kh}$ is decreased by $1.$ Prove that at the end of the tournament, $\det(T+iW)$ is a non-negative integer divisible by $2^{2010}.$
  11. Let $a_1,a_2,\dots$ be real numbers. Suppose there is a constant $A$ such that for all $n,$ \[\int_{-\infty}^{\infty}\left(\sum_{i=1}^n\frac1{1+(x-a_i)^2}\right)^2\,dx\le An.\] Prove there is a constant $B>0$ such that for all $n,$ \[\sum_{i,j=1}^n\left(1+(a_i-a_j)^2\right)\ge Bn^3.\]
  12. Let $p$ be an odd prime. Show that for at least $(p+1)/2$ values of $n$ in $\{0,1,2,\dots,p-1\},$ \[\sum_{k=0}^{p-1}k!n^k \quad \text{is not divisible by }p.\]

Post a Comment


$hide=home

$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

$hide=post$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

$hide=home

Kỷ Yếu$cl=violet$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Journals$cl=green$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

Name

Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,21,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,51,Bắc Giang,49,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,46,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,13,Bình Định,43,Bình Dương,21,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,13,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,347,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,610,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,38,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,54,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1629,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,49,Đồng Tháp,51,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,26,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,25,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,28,Hà Nội,231,Hà Tĩnh,72,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,49,Hải Phòng,42,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,33,HKUST,7,Hòa Bình,13,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,8,HSG 10,100,HSG 11,84,HSG 12,577,HSG 9,398,HSG Cấp Trường,78,HSG Quốc Gia,98,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hứa Thuần Phỏng,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,30,Hương Sơn,2,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,25,IMO,54,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,307,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,16,KHTN,53,Kiên Giang,63,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,18,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,33,Lạng Sơn,21,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,15,Lê Hải Châu,1,Lê Hải Khôi,1,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,42,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,452,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,229,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathLinks,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYTS,4,Nam Định,32,Nam Phi,1,Nam Trung Bộ,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,50,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,41,Ninh Thuận,15,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,96,Olympic 10/3,5,Olympic 11,88,Olympic 12,30,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,19,Olympic 30/4,64,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,10,Olympic Toán,297,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,30,Phú Yên,26,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,11,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,44,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,44,Quảng Nam,31,Quảng Ngãi,33,Quảng Ninh,43,Quảng Trị,26,Quỹ Tích,1,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,69,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,24,Shortlists,56,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,28,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,5,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,6,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,29,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,39,Thái Nguyên,49,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,57,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,6,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,19,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TPHCM,123,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,34,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,25,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,19,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,66,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,2,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,27,Vĩnh Long,19,Vĩnh Phúc,63,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,46,VNTST,21,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,26,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,17,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
ltr
item
MOlympiad: [Solutions] William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition 2011
[Solutions] William Lowell Putnam Mathematical Competition 2011
https://latex.artofproblemsolving.com/3/a/1/3a1edf39770dd7df5589288412844a6f881940e0.png
MOlympiad
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/william-lowell-putnam-mathematical-competition-2011-solutions.html
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/william-lowell-putnam-mathematical-competition-2011-solutions.html
true
2506595080985176441
UTF-8
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy