[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012


Algebra

  1. Find all functions $f:\mathbb Z\rightarrow \mathbb Z$ such that, for all integers $a,b,c$ that satisfy $a+b+c=0$, the following equality holds: \[f(a)^2+f(b)^2+f(c)^2=2f(a)f(b)+2f(b)f(c)+2f(c)f(a).\] (Here $\mathbb{Z}$ denotes the set of integers.)
  2. Let $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$ be the sets of integers and rationals respectively.
    a) Does there exist a partition of $\mathbb{Z}$ into three non-empty subsets $A,B,C$ such that the sets $A+B, B+C, C+A$ are disjoint?
    b) Does there exist a partition of $\mathbb{Q}$ into three non-empty subsets $A,B,C$ such that the sets $A+B, B+C, C+A$ are disjoint?
    Here $X+Y$ denotes the set $\{ x+y : x \in X, y \in Y \}$, for $X,Y \subseteq \mathbb{Z}$ and for $X,Y \subseteq \mathbb{Q}$.
  3. Let $n\ge 3$ be an integer, and let $a_2,a_3,\ldots ,a_n$ be positive real numbers such that $a_{2}a_{3}\cdots a_{n}=1$. Prove that \[(1 + a_2)^2 (1 + a_3)^3 \dotsm (1 + a_n)^n > n^n.\]
  4. Let $f$ and $g$ be two nonzero polynomials with integer coefficients and $\deg f>\deg g$. Suppose that for infinitely many primes $p$ the polynomial $pf+g$ has a rational root. Prove that $f$ has a rational root.
  5. Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the conditions \[f(1+xy)-f(x+y)=f(x)f(y) \quad \text{for all } x,y \in \mathbb{R},\] and $f(-1) \neq 0$.
  6. Let $f: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ be a function, and let $f^m$ be $f$ applied $m$ times. Suppose that for every $n \in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a $k \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{2k}(n)=n+k$, and let $k_n$ be the smallest such $k$. Prove that the sequence $k_1,k_2,\ldots $ is unbounded.
  7. We say that a function $f:\mathbb{R}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a metapolynomial if, for some positive integers $m$ and $n$, it can be represented in the form \[f(x_1,\cdots , x_k )=\max_{i=1,\cdots , m} \min_{j=1,\cdots , n}P_{i,j}(x_1,\cdots , x_k),\] where $P_{i,j}$ are multivariate polynomials. Prove that the product of two metapolynomials is also a metapolynomial.

Combinatorics

  1. Several positive integers are written in a row. Iteratively, Alice chooses two adjacent numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x>y$ and $x$ is to the left of $y$, and replaces the pair $(x,y)$ by either $(y+1,x)$ or $(x-1,x)$. Prove that she can perform only finitely many such iterations.
  2. Let $n \geq 1$ be an integer. What is the maximum number of disjoint pairs of elements of the set $\{ 1,2,\ldots , n \}$ such that the sums of the different pairs are different integers not exceeding $n$?
  3. In a $999 \times 999$ square table some cells are white and the remaining ones are red. Let $T$ be the number of triples $(C_1,C_2,C_3)$ of cells, the first two in the same row and the last two in the same column, with $C_1,C_3$ white and $C_2$ red. Find the maximum value $T$ can attain.
  4. Players $A$ and $B$ play a game with $N \geq 2012$ coins and $2012$ boxes arranged around a circle. Initially $A$ distributes the coins among the boxes so that there is at least $1$ coin in each box. Then the two of them make moves in the order $B,A,B,A,\ldots $ by the following rules
    • On every move of his $B$ passes $1$ coin from every box to an adjacent box.
    • On every move of hers $A$ chooses several coins that were not involved in $B$'s previous move and are in different boxes.
    She passes every coin to and adjacent box. Player $A$'s goal is to ensure at least $1$ coin in each box after every move of hers, regardless of how $B$ plays and how many moves are made. Find the least $N$ that enables her to succeed.
  5. The columns and the row of a $3n \times 3n$ square board are numbered $1,2,\ldots ,3n$. Every square $(x,y)$ with $1 \leq x,y \leq 3n$ is colored asparagus, byzantium or citrine according as the modulo $3$ remainder of $x+y$ is $0,1$ or $2$ respectively. One token colored asparagus, byzantium or citrine is placed on each square, so that there are $3n^2$ tokens of each color. Suppose that one can permute the tokens so that each token is moved to a distance of at most $d$ from its original position, each asparagus token replaces a byzantium token, each byzantium token replaces a citrine token, and each citrine token replaces an asparagus token. Prove that it is possible to permute the tokens so that each token is moved to a distance of at most $d+2$ from its original position, and each square contains a token with the same color as the square.
  6. The liar's guessing game is a game played between two players $A$ and $B$. The rules of the game depend on two positive integers $k$ and $n$ which are known to both players. At the start of the game $A$ chooses integers $x$ and $N$ with $1 \le x \le N.$ Player $A$ keeps $x$ secret, and truthfully tells $N$ to player $B$. Player $B$ now tries to obtain information about $x$ by asking player $A$ questions as follows: each question consists of $B$ specifying an arbitrary set $S$ of positive integers (possibly one specified in some previous question), and asking $A$ whether $x$ belongs to $S$. Player $B$ may ask as many questions as he wishes. After each question, player $A$ must immediately answer it with yes or no, but is allowed to lie as many times as she wants; the only restriction is that, among any $k+1$ consecutive answers, at least one answer must be truthful. After $B$ has asked as many questions as he wants, he must specify a set $X$ of at most $n$ positive integers. If $x$ belongs to $X$, then $B$ wins; otherwise, he loses. Prove that
    a) If $n \ge 2^k,$ then $B$ can guarantee a win.
    b) For all sufficiently large $k$, there exists an integer $n \ge (1.99)^k$ such that $B$ cannot guarantee a win.
  7. There are given $2^{500}$ points on a circle labeled $1,2,\ldots ,2^{500}$ in some order. Prove that one can choose $100$ pairwise disjoint chords joining some of theses points so that the $100$ sums of the pairs of numbers at the endpoints of the chosen chord are equal.

Geometry

  1. Given triangle $ABC$ the point $J$ is the centre of the excircle opposite the vertex $A.$ This excircle is tangent to the side $BC$ at $M$, and to the lines $AB$ and $AC$ at $K$ and $L$, respectively. The lines $LM$ and $BJ$ meet at $F$, and the lines $KM$ and $CJ$ meet at $G.$ Let $S$ be the point of intersection of the lines $AF$ and $BC$, and let $T$ be the point of intersection of the lines $AG$ and $BC.$ Prove that $M$ is the midpoint of $ST.$ (The excircle of $ABC$ opposite the vertex $A$ is the circle that is tangent to the line segment $BC$, to the ray $AB$ beyond $B$, and to the ray $AC$ beyond $C$.)
  2. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at $E$. The extensions of the sides $AD$ and $BC$ beyond $A$ and $B$ meet at $F$. Let $G$ be the point such that $ECGD$ is a parallelogram, and let $H$ be the image of $E$ under reflection in $AD$. Prove that $D,H,F,G$ are concyclic.
  3. In an acute triangle $ABC$ the points $D,E$ and $F$ are the feet of the altitudes through $A,B$ and $C$ respectively. The incenters of the triangles $AEF$ and $BDF$ are $I_1$ and $I_2$ respectively; the circumcenters of the triangles $ACI_1$ and $BCI_2$ are $O_1$ and $O_2$ respectively. Prove that $I_1I_2$ and $O_1O_2$ are parallel.
  4. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB \neq AC$ and circumcenter $O$. The bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects $BC$ at $D$. Let $E$ be the reflection of $D$ with respect to the midpoint of $BC$. The lines through $D$ and $E$ perpendicular to $BC$ intersect the lines $AO$ and $AD$ at $X$ and $Y$ respectively. Prove that the quadrilateral $BXCY$ is cyclic.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle BCA=90^{\circ}$, and let $D$ be the foot of the altitude from $C$. Let $X$ be a point in the interior of the segment $CD$. Let $K$ be the point on the segment $AX$ such that $BK=BC$. Similarly, let $L$ be the point on the segment $BX$ such that $AL=AC$. Let $M$ be the point of intersection of $AL$ and $BK$. Show that $MK=ML$.
  6. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcenter $O$ and incenter $I$. The points $D,E$ and $F$ on the sides $BC,CA$ and $AB$ respectively are such that $BD+BF=CA$ and $CD+CE=AB$. The circumcircles of the triangles $BFD$ and $CDE$ intersect at $P \neq D$. Prove that $OP=OI$.
  7. Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with non-parallel sides $BC$ and $AD$. Assume that there is a point $E$ on the side $BC$ such that the quadrilaterals $ABED$ and $AECD$ are circumscribed. Prove that there is a point $F$ on the side $AD$ such that the quadrilaterals $ABCF$ and $BCDF$ are circumscribed if and only if $AB$ is parallel to $CD$.
  8. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and $\ell$ a line without common points with $\omega$. Denote by $P$ the foot of the perpendicular from the center of $\omega$ to $\ell$. The side-lines $BC,CA,AB$ intersect $\ell$ at the points $X,Y,Z$ different from $P$. Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles $AXP$, $BYP$ and $CZP$ have a common point different from $P$ or are mutually tangent at $P$.

Number Theory

  1. Call admissible a set $A$ of integers that has the following property: If $x,y \in A$ (possibly $x=y$) then $x^2+kxy+y^2 \in A$ for every integer $k$. Determine all pairs $m,n$ of nonzero integers such that the only admissible set containing both $m$ and $n$ is the set of all integers.
  2. Find all triples $(x,y,z)$ of positive integers such that $x \leq y \leq z$ and \[x^3(y^3+z^3)=2012(xyz+2).\]
  3. Determine all integers $m \geq 2$ such that every $n$ with $\frac{m}{3} \leq n \leq \frac{m}{2}$ divides the binomial coefficient $\binom{n}{m-2n}$.
  4. An integer $a$ is called friendly if the equation $$(m^2+n)(n^2+m)=a(m-n)^3$$ has a solution over the positive integers.
    a) Prove that there are at least $500$ friendly integers in the set $\{ 1,2,\ldots ,2012\}$.
    b) Decide whether $a=2$ is friendly.
  5. For a nonnegative integer $n$ define $\operatorname{rad}(n)=1$ if $n=0$ or $n=1$, and $\operatorname{rad}(n)=p_1p_2\cdots p_k$ where $p_1<p_2<\cdots <p_k$ are all prime factors of $n$. Find all polynomials $f(x)$ with nonnegative integer coefficients such that $\operatorname{rad}(f(n))$ divides $\operatorname{rad}(f(n^{\operatorname{rad}(n)}))$ for every nonnegative integer $n$.
  6. Let $x$ and $y$ be positive integers. If ${x^{2^n}}-1$ is divisible by $2^ny+1$ for every positive integer $n$, prove that $x=1$.
  7. Find all positive integers $n$ for which there exist non-negative integers $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ such that \[ \frac{1}{2^{a_1}} + \frac{1}{2^{a_2}} + \cdots + \frac{1}{2^{a_n}} = \frac{1}{3^{a_1}} + \frac{2}{3^{a_2}} + \cdots + \frac{n}{3^{a_n}} = 1. \]
  8. Prove that for every prime $p>100$ and every integer $r$, there exist two integers $a$ and $b$ such that $p$ divides $a^2+b^5-r$.
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MOlympiad.NET: [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012
[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012
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