[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012


  1. Find all functions $f:\mathbb Z\rightarrow \mathbb Z$ such that, for all integers $a,b,c$ that satisfy $a+b+c=0$, the following equality holds: \[f(a)^2+f(b)^2+f(c)^2=2f(a)f(b)+2f(b)f(c)+2f(c)f(a).\] (Here $\mathbb{Z}$ denotes the set of integers.)
  2. Let $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{Q}$ be the sets of integers and rationals respectively.
    a) Does there exist a partition of $\mathbb{Z}$ into three non-empty subsets $A,B,C$ such that the sets $A+B, B+C, C+A$ are disjoint?
    b) Does there exist a partition of $\mathbb{Q}$ into three non-empty subsets $A,B,C$ such that the sets $A+B, B+C, C+A$ are disjoint?
    Here $X+Y$ denotes the set $\{ x+y : x \in X, y \in Y \}$, for $X,Y \subseteq \mathbb{Z}$ and for $X,Y \subseteq \mathbb{Q}$.
  3. Let $n\ge 3$ be an integer, and let $a_2,a_3,\ldots ,a_n$ be positive real numbers such that $a_{2}a_{3}\cdots a_{n}=1$. Prove that \[(1 + a_2)^2 (1 + a_3)^3 \dotsm (1 + a_n)^n > n^n.\]
  4. Let $f$ and $g$ be two nonzero polynomials with integer coefficients and $\deg f>\deg g$. Suppose that for infinitely many primes $p$ the polynomial $pf+g$ has a rational root. Prove that $f$ has a rational root.
  5. Find all functions $f:\mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ that satisfy the conditions \[f(1+xy)-f(x+y)=f(x)f(y) \quad \text{for all } x,y \in \mathbb{R},\] and $f(-1) \neq 0$.
  6. Let $f: \mathbb{N} \rightarrow \mathbb{N}$ be a function, and let $f^m$ be $f$ applied $m$ times. Suppose that for every $n \in \mathbb{N}$ there exists a $k \in \mathbb{N}$ such that $f^{2k}(n)=n+k$, and let $k_n$ be the smallest such $k$. Prove that the sequence $k_1,k_2,\ldots $ is unbounded.
  7. We say that a function $f:\mathbb{R}^k \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ is a metapolynomial if, for some positive integers $m$ and $n$, it can be represented in the form \[f(x_1,\cdots , x_k )=\max_{i=1,\cdots , m} \min_{j=1,\cdots , n}P_{i,j}(x_1,\cdots , x_k),\] where $P_{i,j}$ are multivariate polynomials. Prove that the product of two metapolynomials is also a metapolynomial.


  1. Several positive integers are written in a row. Iteratively, Alice chooses two adjacent numbers $x$ and $y$ such that $x>y$ and $x$ is to the left of $y$, and replaces the pair $(x,y)$ by either $(y+1,x)$ or $(x-1,x)$. Prove that she can perform only finitely many such iterations.
  2. Let $n \geq 1$ be an integer. What is the maximum number of disjoint pairs of elements of the set $\{ 1,2,\ldots , n \}$ such that the sums of the different pairs are different integers not exceeding $n$?
  3. In a $999 \times 999$ square table some cells are white and the remaining ones are red. Let $T$ be the number of triples $(C_1,C_2,C_3)$ of cells, the first two in the same row and the last two in the same column, with $C_1,C_3$ white and $C_2$ red. Find the maximum value $T$ can attain.
  4. Players $A$ and $B$ play a game with $N \geq 2012$ coins and $2012$ boxes arranged around a circle. Initially $A$ distributes the coins among the boxes so that there is at least $1$ coin in each box. Then the two of them make moves in the order $B,A,B,A,\ldots $ by the following rules
    • On every move of his $B$ passes $1$ coin from every box to an adjacent box.
    • On every move of hers $A$ chooses several coins that were not involved in $B$'s previous move and are in different boxes.
    She passes every coin to and adjacent box. Player $A$'s goal is to ensure at least $1$ coin in each box after every move of hers, regardless of how $B$ plays and how many moves are made. Find the least $N$ that enables her to succeed.
  5. The columns and the row of a $3n \times 3n$ square board are numbered $1,2,\ldots ,3n$. Every square $(x,y)$ with $1 \leq x,y \leq 3n$ is colored asparagus, byzantium or citrine according as the modulo $3$ remainder of $x+y$ is $0,1$ or $2$ respectively. One token colored asparagus, byzantium or citrine is placed on each square, so that there are $3n^2$ tokens of each color. Suppose that one can permute the tokens so that each token is moved to a distance of at most $d$ from its original position, each asparagus token replaces a byzantium token, each byzantium token replaces a citrine token, and each citrine token replaces an asparagus token. Prove that it is possible to permute the tokens so that each token is moved to a distance of at most $d+2$ from its original position, and each square contains a token with the same color as the square.
  6. The liar's guessing game is a game played between two players $A$ and $B$. The rules of the game depend on two positive integers $k$ and $n$ which are known to both players. At the start of the game $A$ chooses integers $x$ and $N$ with $1 \le x \le N.$ Player $A$ keeps $x$ secret, and truthfully tells $N$ to player $B$. Player $B$ now tries to obtain information about $x$ by asking player $A$ questions as follows: each question consists of $B$ specifying an arbitrary set $S$ of positive integers (possibly one specified in some previous question), and asking $A$ whether $x$ belongs to $S$. Player $B$ may ask as many questions as he wishes. After each question, player $A$ must immediately answer it with yes or no, but is allowed to lie as many times as she wants; the only restriction is that, among any $k+1$ consecutive answers, at least one answer must be truthful. After $B$ has asked as many questions as he wants, he must specify a set $X$ of at most $n$ positive integers. If $x$ belongs to $X$, then $B$ wins; otherwise, he loses. Prove that
    a) If $n \ge 2^k,$ then $B$ can guarantee a win.
    b) For all sufficiently large $k$, there exists an integer $n \ge (1.99)^k$ such that $B$ cannot guarantee a win.
  7. There are given $2^{500}$ points on a circle labeled $1,2,\ldots ,2^{500}$ in some order. Prove that one can choose $100$ pairwise disjoint chords joining some of theses points so that the $100$ sums of the pairs of numbers at the endpoints of the chosen chord are equal.


  1. Given triangle $ABC$ the point $J$ is the centre of the excircle opposite the vertex $A.$ This excircle is tangent to the side $BC$ at $M$, and to the lines $AB$ and $AC$ at $K$ and $L$, respectively. The lines $LM$ and $BJ$ meet at $F$, and the lines $KM$ and $CJ$ meet at $G.$ Let $S$ be the point of intersection of the lines $AF$ and $BC$, and let $T$ be the point of intersection of the lines $AG$ and $BC.$ Prove that $M$ is the midpoint of $ST.$ (The excircle of $ABC$ opposite the vertex $A$ is the circle that is tangent to the line segment $BC$, to the ray $AB$ beyond $B$, and to the ray $AC$ beyond $C$.)
  2. Let $ABCD$ be a cyclic quadrilateral whose diagonals $AC$ and $BD$ meet at $E$. The extensions of the sides $AD$ and $BC$ beyond $A$ and $B$ meet at $F$. Let $G$ be the point such that $ECGD$ is a parallelogram, and let $H$ be the image of $E$ under reflection in $AD$. Prove that $D,H,F,G$ are concyclic.
  3. In an acute triangle $ABC$ the points $D,E$ and $F$ are the feet of the altitudes through $A,B$ and $C$ respectively. The incenters of the triangles $AEF$ and $BDF$ are $I_1$ and $I_2$ respectively; the circumcenters of the triangles $ACI_1$ and $BCI_2$ are $O_1$ and $O_2$ respectively. Prove that $I_1I_2$ and $O_1O_2$ are parallel.
  4. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $AB \neq AC$ and circumcenter $O$. The bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects $BC$ at $D$. Let $E$ be the reflection of $D$ with respect to the midpoint of $BC$. The lines through $D$ and $E$ perpendicular to $BC$ intersect the lines $AO$ and $AD$ at $X$ and $Y$ respectively. Prove that the quadrilateral $BXCY$ is cyclic.
  5. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle BCA=90^{\circ}$, and let $D$ be the foot of the altitude from $C$. Let $X$ be a point in the interior of the segment $CD$. Let $K$ be the point on the segment $AX$ such that $BK=BC$. Similarly, let $L$ be the point on the segment $BX$ such that $AL=AC$. Let $M$ be the point of intersection of $AL$ and $BK$. Show that $MK=ML$.
  6. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcenter $O$ and incenter $I$. The points $D,E$ and $F$ on the sides $BC,CA$ and $AB$ respectively are such that $BD+BF=CA$ and $CD+CE=AB$. The circumcircles of the triangles $BFD$ and $CDE$ intersect at $P \neq D$. Prove that $OP=OI$.
  7. Let $ABCD$ be a convex quadrilateral with non-parallel sides $BC$ and $AD$. Assume that there is a point $E$ on the side $BC$ such that the quadrilaterals $ABED$ and $AECD$ are circumscribed. Prove that there is a point $F$ on the side $AD$ such that the quadrilaterals $ABCF$ and $BCDF$ are circumscribed if and only if $AB$ is parallel to $CD$.
  8. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with circumcircle $\omega$ and $\ell$ a line without common points with $\omega$. Denote by $P$ the foot of the perpendicular from the center of $\omega$ to $\ell$. The side-lines $BC,CA,AB$ intersect $\ell$ at the points $X,Y,Z$ different from $P$. Prove that the circumcircles of the triangles $AXP$, $BYP$ and $CZP$ have a common point different from $P$ or are mutually tangent at $P$.

Number Theory

  1. Call admissible a set $A$ of integers that has the following property: If $x,y \in A$ (possibly $x=y$) then $x^2+kxy+y^2 \in A$ for every integer $k$. Determine all pairs $m,n$ of nonzero integers such that the only admissible set containing both $m$ and $n$ is the set of all integers.
  2. Find all triples $(x,y,z)$ of positive integers such that $x \leq y \leq z$ and \[x^3(y^3+z^3)=2012(xyz+2).\]
  3. Determine all integers $m \geq 2$ such that every $n$ with $\frac{m}{3} \leq n \leq \frac{m}{2}$ divides the binomial coefficient $\binom{n}{m-2n}$.
  4. An integer $a$ is called friendly if the equation $$(m^2+n)(n^2+m)=a(m-n)^3$$ has a solution over the positive integers.
    a) Prove that there are at least $500$ friendly integers in the set $\{ 1,2,\ldots ,2012\}$.
    b) Decide whether $a=2$ is friendly.
  5. For a nonnegative integer $n$ define $\operatorname{rad}(n)=1$ if $n=0$ or $n=1$, and $\operatorname{rad}(n)=p_1p_2\cdots p_k$ where $p_1<p_2<\cdots <p_k$ are all prime factors of $n$. Find all polynomials $f(x)$ with nonnegative integer coefficients such that $\operatorname{rad}(f(n))$ divides $\operatorname{rad}(f(n^{\operatorname{rad}(n)}))$ for every nonnegative integer $n$.
  6. Let $x$ and $y$ be positive integers. If ${x^{2^n}}-1$ is divisible by $2^ny+1$ for every positive integer $n$, prove that $x=1$.
  7. Find all positive integers $n$ for which there exist non-negative integers $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ such that \[ \frac{1}{2^{a_1}} + \frac{1}{2^{a_2}} + \cdots + \frac{1}{2^{a_n}} = \frac{1}{3^{a_1}} + \frac{2}{3^{a_2}} + \cdots + \frac{n}{3^{a_n}} = 1. \]
  8. Prove that for every prime $p>100$ and every integer $r$, there exist two integers $a$ and $b$ such that $p$ divides $a^2+b^5-r$.

Post a Comment





Kỷ Yếu$cl=violet$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0



Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,21,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,52,Bắc Giang,49,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,47,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,13,Bình Định,44,Bình Dương,21,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,13,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,347,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,610,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,54,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1641,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,49,Đồng Tháp,51,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,26,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,25,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,29,Hà Nội,231,Hà Tĩnh,72,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,49,Hải Phòng,42,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,33,HKUST,7,Hòa Bình,13,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,8,HSG 10,100,HSG 11,86,HSG 12,580,HSG 9,402,HSG Cấp Trường,78,HSG Quốc Gia,99,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hứa Thuần Phỏng,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,32,Hương Sơn,2,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,25,IMO,54,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,307,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,16,KHTN,53,Kiên Giang,63,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,18,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,33,Lạng Sơn,21,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,16,Lê Hải Châu,1,Lê Hải Khôi,1,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,42,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,452,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,229,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathLinks,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,10,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,9,MYTS,4,Nam Định,32,Nam Phi,1,Nam Trung Bộ,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,50,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,3,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,41,Ninh Thuận,15,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,98,Olympic 10/3,5,Olympic 11,89,Olympic 12,30,Olympic 24/3,6,Olympic 27/4,20,Olympic 30/4,66,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,12,Olympic Toán,300,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,30,Phú Yên,26,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,11,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,44,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,44,Quảng Nam,31,Quảng Ngãi,33,Quảng Ninh,43,Quảng Trị,26,Quỹ Tích,1,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,69,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,24,Shortlists,56,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,28,Sơn La,11,Spain,8,Star Education,5,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,6,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,29,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,39,Thái Nguyên,49,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,57,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,6,Thừa Thiên Huế,35,Tiền Giang,19,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TPHCM,125,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,34,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,25,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,19,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,66,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,2,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,27,Vĩnh Long,20,Vĩnh Phúc,63,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,46,VNTST,22,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,26,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,17,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
MOlympiad: [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012
[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2012
Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy