[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2010

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  1. Find all function $f:\mathbb{R}\rightarrow\mathbb{R}$ such that for all $x,y\in\mathbb{R}$ the following equality holds \[ f(\left\lfloor x\right\rfloor y)=f(x)\left\lfloor f(y)\right\rfloor \] where $\left\lfloor a\right\rfloor $ is greatest integer not greater than $a.$
  2. Let the real numbers $a,b,c,d$ satisfy the relations $a+b+c+d=6$ and $a^2+b^2+c^2+d^2=12.$ Prove that \[36 \leq 4 \left(a^3+b^3+c^3+d^3\right) - \left(a^4+b^4+c^4+d^4 \right) \leq 48.\]
  3. Let $x_1, \ldots , x_{100}$ be nonnegative real numbers such that $x_i + x_{i+1} + x_{i+2} \leq 1$ for all $i = 1, \ldots , 100$ (we put $x_{101 } = x_1, x_{102} = x_2).$ Find the maximal possible value of the sum $$S = \sum^{100}_{i=1} x_i x_{i+2}.$$
  4. A sequence $x_1, x_2, \ldots$ is defined by $x_1 = 1$ and $$x_{2k}=-x_k, x_{2k-1} = (-1)^{k+1}x_k$$ for all $k \geq 1.$ Prove that for all $n \geq 1$, $$x_1 + x_2 + \ldots + x_n \geq 0.$$
  5. Denote by $\mathbb{Q}^+$ the set of all positive rational numbers. Determine all functions $f : \mathbb{Q}^+ \mapsto \mathbb{Q}^+$ which satisfy the following equation for all $x, y \in \mathbb{Q}^+:$ \[f\left( f(x)^2y \right) = x^3 f(xy).\]
  6. Suppose that $f$ and $g$ are two functions defined on the set of positive integers and taking positive integer values. Suppose also that the equations $f(g(n)) = f(n) + 1$ and $g(f(n)) = g(n) + 1$ hold for all positive integers. Prove that $f(n) = g(n)$ for all positive integer $n.$
  7. Let $a_1, a_2, a_3, \ldots$ be a sequence of positive real numbers, and $s$ be a positive integer, such that \[a_n = \max \{ a_k + a_{n-k} \mid 1 \leq k \leq n-1 \} \ \textrm{ for all } \ n > s.\] Prove there exist positive integers $\ell \leq s$ and $N$, such that \[a_n = a_{\ell} + a_{n - \ell} \ \textrm{ for all } \ n \geq N.\]
  8. Given six positive numbers $a,b,c,d,e,f$ such that $a < b < c < d < e < f.$ Let $a+c+e=S$ and $b+d+f=T.$ Prove that \[2ST > \sqrt{3(S+T)\left(S(bd + bf + df) + T(ac + ae + ce) \right)}.\]


  1. In a concert, 20 singers will perform. For each singer, there is a (possibly empty) set of other singers such that he wishes to perform later than all the singers from that set. Can it happen that there are exactly 2010 orders of the singers such that all their wishes are satisfied?
  2. On some planet, there are $2^N$ countries $(N \geq 4).$ Each country has a flag $N$ units wide and one unit high composed of $N$ fields of size $1 \times 1,$ each field being either yellow or blue. No two countries have the same flag. We say that a set of $N$ flags is diverse if these flags can be arranged into an $N \times N$ square so that all $N$ fields on its main diagonal will have the same color. Determine the smallest positive integer $M$ such that among any $M$ distinct flags, there exist $N$ flags forming a diverse set.
  3. 2500 chess kings have to be placed on a $100 \times 100$ chessboard so that
    • no king can capture any other one (i.e. no two kings are placed in two squares sharing a common vertex);
    • each row and each column contains exactly 25 kings.
    Find the number of such arrangements. (Two arrangements differing by rotation or symmetry are supposed to be different.)
  4. Each of the six boxes $B_1$, $B_2$, $B_3$, $B_4$, $B_5$, $B_6$ initially contains one coin. The following operations are allowed
    • Choose a non-empty box $B_j$, $1\leq j \leq 5$, remove one coin from $B_j$ and add two coins to $B_{j+1}$;
    • Choose a non-empty box $B_k$, $1\leq k \leq 4$, remove one coin from $B_k$ and swap the contents (maybe empty) of the boxes $B_{k+1}$ and $B_{k+2}$.
    Determine if there exists a finite sequence of operations of the allowed types, such that the five boxes $B_1$, $B_2$, $B_3$, $B_4$, $B_5$ become empty, while box $B_6$ contains exactly $2010^{2010^{2010}}$ coins.
  5. $n \geq 4$ players participated in a tennis tournament. Any two players have played exactly one game, and there was no tie game. We call a company of four players $bad$ if one player was defeated by the other three players, and each of these three players won a game and lost another game among themselves. Suppose that there is no bad company in this tournament. Let $w_i$ and $l_i$ be respectively the number of wins and losses of the $i$-th player. Prove that \[\sum^n_{i=1} \left(w_i - l_i\right)^3 \geq 0.\]
  6. Given a positive integer $k$ and other two integers $b > w > 1.$ There are two strings of pearls, a string of $b$ black pearls and a string of $w$ white pearls. The length of a string is the number of pearls on it. One cuts these strings in some steps by the following rules. In each step:
    • The strings are ordered by their lengths in a non-increasing order. If there are some strings of equal lengths, then the white ones precede the black ones. Then $k$ first ones (if they consist of more than one pearl) are chosen; if there are less than $k$ strings longer than 1, then one chooses all of them.
    • Next, one cuts each chosen string into two parts differing in length by at most one. (For instance, if there are strings of $5, 4, 4, 2$ black pearls, strings of $8, 4, 3$ white pearls and $k = 4,$ then the strings of 8 white, 5 black, 4 white and 4 black pearls are cut into the parts $(4,4), (3,2), (2,2)$ and $(2,2)$ respectively.) The process stops immediately after the step when a first isolated white pearl appears.
    Prove that at this stage, there will still exist a string of at least two black pearls.
  7. Let $P_1, \ldots , P_s$ be arithmetic progressions of integers, the following conditions being satisfied:
    • each integer belongs to at least one of them;
    • each progression contains a number which does not belong to other progressions.
    Denote by $n$ the least common multiple of the ratios of these progressions; let $n=p_1^{\alpha_1} \cdots p_k^{\alpha_k}$ its prime factorization. Prove that \[s \geq 1 + \sum^k_{i=1} \alpha_i (p_i - 1).\]


  1. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle with $D, E, F$ the feet of the altitudes lying on $BC, CA, AB$ respectively. One of the intersection points of the line $EF$ and the circumcircle is $P.$ The lines $BP$ and $DF$ meet at point $Q.$ Prove that $AP = AQ.$
  2. Let $P$ be a point interior to triangle $ABC$ (with $CA \neq CB$). The lines $AP$, $BP$ and $CP$ meet again its circumcircle $\Gamma$ at $K$, $L$, respectively $M$. The tangent line at $C$ to $\Gamma$ meets the line $AB$ at $S$. Show that from $SC = SP$ follows $MK = ML$.
  3. Let $A_1A_2 \ldots A_n$ be a convex polygon. Point $P$ inside this polygon is chosen so that its projections $P_1, \ldots , P_n$ onto lines $A_1A_2, \ldots , A_nA_1$ respectively lie on the sides of the polygon. Prove that for arbitrary points $X_1, \ldots , X_n$ on sides $A_1A_2, \ldots , A_nA_1$ respectively. \[\max \left\{ \frac{X_1X_2}{P_1P_2}, \ldots, \frac{X_nX_1}{P_nP_1} \right\} \geq 1.\]
  4. Given a triangle $ABC$, with $I$ as its incenter and $\Gamma$ as its circumcircle, $AI$ intersects $\Gamma$ again at $D$. Let $E$ be a point on the arc $BDC$, and $F$ a point on the segment $BC$, such that $\angle BAF=\angle CAE < \dfrac12\angle BAC$. If $G$ is the midpoint of $IF$, prove that the meeting point of the lines $EI$ and $DG$ lies on $\Gamma$.
  5. Let $ABCDE$ be a convex pentagon such that $BC \parallel AE,$ $AB = BC + AE,$ and $\angle ABC = \angle CDE.$ Let $M$ be the midpoint of $CE,$ and let $O$ be the circumcenter of triangle $BCD.$ Given that $\angle DMO = 90^{\circ},$ prove that $2 \angle BDA = \angle CDE.$
  6. The vertices $X, Y , Z$ of an equilateral triangle $XYZ$ lie respectively on the sides $BC, CA, AB$ of an acute-angled triangle $ABC.$ Prove that the incenter of triangle $ABC$ lies inside triangle $XYZ.$
  7. Three circular arcs $\gamma_1, \gamma_2,$ and $\gamma_3$ connect the points $A$ and $C.$ These arcs lie in the same half-plane defined by line $AC$ in such a way that arc $\gamma_2$ lies between the arcs $\gamma_1$ and $\gamma_3.$ Point $B$ lies on the segment $AC.$ Let $h_1, h_2$, and $h_3$ be three rays starting at $B,$ lying in the same half-plane, $h_2$ being between $h_1$ and $h_3.$ For $i, j = 1, 2, 3,$ denote by $V_{ij}$ the point of intersection of $h_i$ and $\gamma_j$ (see the Figure below). Denote by $\widehat{V_{ij}V_{kj}}\widehat{V_{kl}V_{il}}$ the curved quadrilateral, whose sides are the segments $V_{ij}V_{il},$ $V_{kj}V_{kl}$ and arcs $V_{ij}V_{kj}$ and $V_{il}V_{kl}.$ We say that this quadrilateral is circumscribed if there exists a circle touching these two segments and two arcs. Prove that if the curved quadrilaterals $\widehat{V_{11}V_{21}}\widehat{V_{22}V_{12}}$, $\widehat{V_{12}V_{22}}\widehat{V_{23}V_{13}}$, $\widehat{V_{21}V_{31}}\widehat{V_{32}V_{22}}$ are circumscribed, then the curved quadrilateral $\widehat{V_{22}V_{32}}\widehat{V_{33}V_{23}}$ is circumscribed, too.

Number Theory

  1. Find the least positive integer $n$ for which there exists a set $\{s_1, s_2, \ldots , s_n\}$ consisting of $n$ distinct positive integers such that \[ \left( 1 - \frac{1}{s_1} \right) \left( 1 - \frac{1}{s_2} \right) \cdots \left( 1 - \frac{1}{s_n} \right) = \frac{51}{2010}.\]
  2. Find all pairs $(m,n)$ of nonnegative integers for which \[m^2 + 2 \cdot 3^n = m\left(2^{n+1} - 1\right).\]
  3. Find the smallest number $n$ such that there exist polynomials $f_1, f_2, \ldots , f_n$ with rational coefficients satisfying \[x^2+7 = f_1\left(x\right)^2 + f_2\left(x\right)^2 + \ldots + f_n\left(x\right)^2.\]
  4. Let $a, b$ be integers, and let $P(x) = ax^3+bx.$ For any positive integer $n$ we say that the pair $(a,b)$ is $n$-good if $n | P(m)-P(k)$ implies $n | m - k$ for all integers $m, k.$ We say that $(a,b)$ is $very \ good$ if $(a,b)$ is $n$-good for infinitely many positive integers $n.$
    (a) Find a pair $(a,b)$ which is 51-good, but not very good.
    (b) Show that all 2010-good pairs are very good.
  5. Find all functions $g:\mathbb{N}\rightarrow\mathbb{N}$ such that \[\left(g(m)+n\right)\left(g(n)+m\right)\] is a perfect square for all $m,n\in\mathbb{N}.$
  6. The rows and columns of a $2^n \times 2^n$ table are numbered from $0$ to $2^{n}-1.$ The cells of the table have been coloured with the following property being satisfied: for each $0 \leq i,j \leq 2^n - 1,$ the $j$-th cell in the $i$-th row and the $(i+j)$-th cell in the $j$-th row have the same colour. (The indices of the cells in a row are considered modulo $2^n$.) Prove that the maximal possible number of colours is $2^n$.



Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,4,An Giang,43,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,APMO,21,Austria (Áo),1,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,75,Bắc Bộ,2,Bắc Giang,60,Bắc Kạn,4,Bạc Liêu,17,Bắc Ninh,59,Bắc Trung Bộ,3,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,41,Baltic Way,32,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,69,Bến Tre,70,Benelux,16,Bình Định,64,Bình Dương,37,Bình Phước,48,Bình Thuận,42,Birch,1,BMO,41,Booklet,12,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,British,16,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,6,Buôn Ma Thuột,2,BxMO,15,Cà Mau,21,Cần Thơ,25,Canada,40,Cao Bằng,12,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,43,Caucasus,3,CGMO,11,China - Trung Quốc,25,Chọn Đội Tuyển,492,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,125,Chuyên SPHCM,7,Chuyên SPHN,29,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,675,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,28,Đà Nẵng,49,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,74,Đắk Nông,14,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi,1,Đề Thi HSG,2192,Đề Thi JMO,1,DHBB,28,Điện Biên,13,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,5,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đồng Nai,63,Đồng Tháp,62,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Dương Quỳnh Châu,1,Dương Tú,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,28,E-Book,31,EGMO,30,ELMO,19,EMC,11,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,30,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,14,GGTH,30,Gia Lai,39,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,5,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,43,Hà Nội,249,Hà Tĩnh,93,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,66,Hải Phòng,56,Hậu Giang,13,Hélènne Esnault,1,Hilbert,2,Hình Học,33,HKUST,7,Hòa Bình,32,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,8,HSG 10,124,HSG 10 2010-2011,4,HSG 10 2011-2012,7,HSG 10 2012-2013,6,HSG 10 20122-2023,2,HSG 10 2013-2014,5,HSG 10 2014-2015,6,HSG 10 2015-2016,2,HSG 10 2016-2017,6,HSG 10 2017-2018,4,HSG 10 2018-2019,4,HSG 10 2019-2020,8,HSG 10 2020-2021,2,HSG 10 2021-2022,3,HSG 10 2022-2023,9,HSG 10 Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,2,HSG 10 Bắc Giang,1,HSG 10 Bạc Liêu,2,HSG 10 Bắc Ninh,3,HSG 10 Bình Định,1,HSG 10 Bình Dương,1,HSG 10 Bình Thuận,4,HSG 10 Chuyên SPHN,5,HSG 10 Đắk Lắk,2,HSG 10 Đồng Nai,4,HSG 10 Gia Lai,2,HSG 10 Hà Nam,4,HSG 10 Hà Tĩnh,15,HSG 10 Hải Dương,10,HSG 10 KHTN,9,HSG 10 Kon Tum,1,HSG 10 Nghệ An,1,HSG 10 Ninh Thuận,1,HSG 10 Phú Yên,2,HSG 10 PTNK,5,HSG 10 Quảng Nam,1,HSG 10 Quảng Trị,2,HSG 10 Thái Nguyên,9,HSG 10 Trà Vinh,5,HSG 10 Vĩnh Phúc,14,HSG 1015-2016,3,HSG 11,132,HSG 11 2010-2011,5,HSG 11 2011-2012,10,HSG 11 2012-2013,9,HSG 11 2013-2014,7,HSG 11 2014-2015,10,HSG 11 2015-2016,6,HSG 11 2016-2017,8,HSG 11 2017-2018,6,HSG 11 2018-2019,8,HSG 11 2019-2020,4,HSG 11 2020-2021,7,HSG 11 2021-2022,2,HSG 11 2022-2023,5,HSG 11 An Giang,2,HSG 11 Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,1,HSG 11 Bắc Giang,4,HSG 11 Bạc Liêu,2,HSG 11 Bắc Ninh,4,HSG 11 Bình Định,12,HSG 11 Bình Dương,3,HSG 11 Bình Thuận,1,HSG 11 Cà Mau,1,HSG 11 Đà Nẵng,9,HSG 11 Đồng Nai,1,HSG 11 Hà Nam,2,HSG 11 Hà Tĩnh,12,HSG 11 Hải Phòng,1,HSG 11 Kiên Giang,4,HSG 11 Lạng Sơn,11,HSG 11 Nghệ An,6,HSG 11 Ninh Bình,2,HSG 11 Quảng Bình,9,HSG 11 Quảng Nam,1,HSG 11 Quảng Ngãi,9,HSG 11 Quảng Trị,3,HSG 11 Sóc Trăng,1,HSG 11 Thái Nguyên,8,HSG 11 Thanh Hóa,3,HSG 11 Trà Vinh,1,HSG 11 Tuyên Quang,1,HSG 11 Vĩnh Long,3,HSG 11 Vĩnh Phúc,11,HSG 12,641,HSG 12 2009-2010,2,HSG 12 2010-2011,39,HSG 12 2011-2012,44,HSG 12 2012-2013,58,HSG 12 2013-2014,53,HSG 12 2014-2015,44,HSG 12 2015-2016,37,HSG 12 2016-2017,46,HSG 12 2017-2018,56,HSG 12 2018-2019,43,HSG 12 2019-2020,43,HSG 12 2020-2021,52,HSG 12 2021-2022,34,HSG 12 2022-2023,41,HSG 12 An Giang,8,HSG 12 Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,12,HSG 12 Bắc Giang,17,HSG 12 Bạc Liêu,3,HSG 12 Bắc Ninh,13,HSG 12 Bến Tre,19,HSG 12 Bình Định,16,HSG 12 Bình Dương,8,HSG 12 Bình Phước,8,HSG 12 Bình Thuận,8,HSG 12 Cà Mau,7,HSG 12 Cần Thơ,7,HSG 12 Cao Bằng,5,HSG 12 Chuyên SPHN,10,HSG 12 Đà Nẵng,3,HSG 12 Đắk Lắk,21,HSG 12 Đắk Nông,1,HSG 12 Điện Biên,3,HSG 12 Đồng Nai,20,HSG 12 Đồng Tháp,18,HSG 12 Gia Lai,13,HSG 12 Hà Nam,4,HSG 12 Hà Nội,16,HSG 12 Hà Tĩnh,16,HSG 12 Hải Dương,14,HSG 12 Hải Phòng,20,HSG 12 Hậu Giang,4,HSG 12 Hòa Bình,10,HSG 12 Hưng Yên,9,HSG 12 Khánh Hòa,3,HSG 12 KHTN,26,HSG 12 Kiên Giang,12,HSG 12 Kon Tum,2,HSG 12 Lai Châu,4,HSG 12 Lâm Đồng,11,HSG 12 Lạng Sơn,8,HSG 12 Lào Cai,17,HSG 12 Long An,18,HSG 12 Nam Định,7,HSG 12 Nghệ An,12,HSG 12 Ninh Bình,11,HSG 12 Ninh Thuận,7,HSG 12 Phú Thọ,17,HSG 12 Phú Yên,13,HSG 12 Quảng Bình,13,HSG 12 Quảng Nam,9,HSG 12 Quảng Ngãi,6,HSG 12 Quảng Ninh,20,HSG 12 Quảng Trị,9,HSG 12 Sóc Trăng,4,HSG 12 Sơn La,5,HSG 12 Tây Ninh,6,HSG 12 Thái Bình,11,HSG 12 Thái Nguyên,12,HSG 12 Thanh Hóa,16,HSG 12 Thừa Thiên Huế,18,HSG 12 Tiền Giang,3,HSG 12 TPHCM,13,HSG 12 Tuyên Quang,2,HSG 12 Vĩnh Long,7,HSG 12 Vĩnh Phúc,19,HSG 12 Yên Bái,6,HSG 9,570,HSG 9 2009-2010,1,HSG 9 2010-2011,21,HSG 9 2011-2012,42,HSG 9 2012-2013,42,HSG 9 2013-2014,36,HSG 9 2014-2015,41,HSG 9 2015-2016,39,HSG 9 2016-2017,43,HSG 9 2017-2018,45,HSG 9 2018-2019,43,HSG 9 2019-2020,18,HSG 9 2020-2021,51,HSG 9 2021-2022,55,HSG 9 2022-2023,55,HSG 9 An Giang,9,HSG 9 Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,8,HSG 9 Bắc Giang,13,HSG 9 Bắc Kạn,1,HSG 9 Bạc Liêu,1,HSG 9 Bắc Ninh,13,HSG 9 Bến Tre,10,HSG 9 Bình Định,11,HSG 9 Bình Dương,7,HSG 9 Bình Phước,13,HSG 9 Bình Thuận,5,HSG 9 Cà Mau,2,HSG 9 Cần Thơ,4,HSG 9 Cao Bằng,2,HSG 9 Đà Nẵng,11,HSG 9 Đắk Lắk,12,HSG 9 Đắk Nông,3,HSG 9 Điện Biên,4,HSG 9 Đồng Nai,8,HSG 9 Đồng Tháp,10,HSG 9 Gia Lai,9,HSG 9 Hà Giang,4,HSG 9 Hà Nam,10,HSG 9 Hà Nội,14,HSG 9 Hà Tĩnh,17,HSG 9 Hải Dương,15,HSG 9 Hải Phòng,8,HSG 9 Hậu Giang,5,HSG 9 Hòa Bình,4,HSG 9 Hưng Yên,11,HSG 9 Khánh Hòa,6,HSG 9 Kiên Giang,16,HSG 9 Kon Tum,9,HSG 9 Lai Châu,2,HSG 9 Lâm Đồng,14,HSG 9 Lạng Sơn,10,HSG 9 Lào Cai,4,HSG 9 Long An,10,HSG 9 Nam Định,9,HSG 9 Nghệ An,21,HSG 9 Ninh Bình,14,HSG 9 Ninh Thuận,4,HSG 9 Phú Thọ,13,HSG 9 Phú Yên,9,HSG 9 Quảng Bình,14,HSG 9 Quảng Nam,12,HSG 9 Quảng Ngãi,13,HSG 9 Quảng Ninh,16,HSG 9 Quảng Trị,10,HSG 9 Sóc Trăng,9,HSG 9 Sơn La,5,HSG 9 Tây Ninh,16,HSG 9 Thái Bình,10,HSG 9 Thái Nguyên,5,HSG 9 Thanh Hóa,11,HSG 9 Thừa Thiên Huế,9,HSG 9 Tiền Giang,7,HSG 9 TPHCM,11,HSG 9 Trà Vinh,2,HSG 9 Tuyên Quang,6,HSG 9 Vĩnh Long,12,HSG 9 Vĩnh Phúc,11,HSG 9 Yên Bái,5,HSG Cấp Trường,80,HSG Quốc Gia,111,HSG Quốc Tế,16,HSG11 2021-2022,3,HSG11 2022-2023,1,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hứa Thuần Phỏng,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,41,Hương Sơn,2,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy 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MOlympiad.NET: [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2010
[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2010
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