$hide=mobile

[Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2001

Geometry

  1. Let $A_1$ be the center of the square inscribed in acute triangle $ABC$ with two vertices of the square on side $BC$. Thus one of the two remaining vertices of the square is on side $AB$ and the other is on $AC$. Points $B_1,\ C_1$ are defined in a similar way for inscribed squares with two vertices on sides $AC$ and $AB$, respectively. Prove that lines $AA_1,\ BB_1,\ CC_1$ are concurrent.
  2. Consider an acute-angled triangle $ABC$. Let $P$ be the foot of the altitude of triangle $ABC$ issuing from the vertex $A$, and let $O$ be the circumcenter of triangle $ABC$. Assume that $\angle C \geq \angle B+30^{\circ}$. Prove that $\angle A+\angle COP < 90^{\circ}$.
  3. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with centroid $G$. Determine, with proof, the position of the point $P$ in the plane of $ABC$ such that $AP{\cdot}AG + BP{\cdot}BG + CP{\cdot}CG$ is a minimum, and express this minimum value in terms of the side lengths of $ABC$.
  4. Let $M$ be a point in the interior of triangle $ABC$. Let $A'$ lie on $BC$ with $MA'$ perpendicular to $BC$. Define $B'$ on $CA$ and $C'$ on $AB$ similarly. Define \[ p(M) = \frac{MA' \cdot MB' \cdot MC'}{MA \cdot MB \cdot MC}. \] Determine, with proof, the location of $M$ such that $p(M)$ is maximal. Let $\mu(ABC)$ denote this maximum value. For which triangles $ABC$ is the value of $\mu(ABC)$ maximal?
  5. Let $ABC$ be an acute triangle. Let $DAC,EAB$, and $FBC$ be isosceles triangles exterior to $ABC$, with $DA=DC, EA=EB$, and $FB=FC$, such that \[ \angle ADC = 2\angle BAC, \quad \angle BEA= 2 \angle ABC, \quad \angle CFB = 2 \angle ACB. \] Let $D'$ be the intersection of lines $DB$ and $EF$, let $E'$ be the intersection of $EC$ and $DF$, and let $F'$ be the intersection of $FA$ and $DE$. Find, with proof, the value of the sum \[ \frac{DB}{DD'}+\frac{EC}{EE'}+\frac{FA}{FF'}. \]
  6. Let $ABC$ be a triangle and $P$ an exterior point in the plane of the triangle. Suppose the lines $AP$, $BP$, $CP$ meet the sides $BC$, $CA$, $AB$ (or extensions thereof) in $D$, $E$, $F$, respectively. Suppose further that the areas of triangles $PBD$, $PCE$, $PAF$ are all equal. Prove that each of these areas is equal to the area of triangle $ABC$ itself.
  7. Let $O$ be an interior point of acute triangle $ABC$. Let $A_1$ lie on $BC$ with $OA_1$ perpendicular to $BC$. Define $B_1$ on $CA$ and $C_1$ on $AB$ similarly. Prove that $O$ is the circumcenter of $ABC$ if and only if the perimeter of $A_1B_1C_1$ is not less than any one of the perimeters of $AB_1C_1, BC_1A_1$, and $CA_1B_1$.
  8. Let $ABC$ be a triangle with $\angle BAC = 60^{\circ}$. Let $AP$ bisect $\angle BAC$ and let $BQ$ bisect $\angle ABC$, with $P$ on $BC$ and $Q$ on $AC$. If $AB + BP = AQ + QB$, what are the angles of the triangle?

Number Theory

  1. Prove that there is no positive integer $n$ such that, for $k = 1,2,\ldots,9$, the leftmost digit (in decimal notation) of $(n+k)!$ equals $k$.
  2. Consider the system $x + y = z + u,$ $2xy \& = zu.$ Find the greatest value of the real constant $m$ such that $m \leq x/y$ for any positive integer solution $(x,y,z,u)$ of the system, with $x \geq y$.
  3. Let $ a_1 = 11^{11}$, $a_2 = 12^{12}$, $a_3 = 13^{13}$, and $$a_n = |a_{n - 1} - a_{n - 2}| + |a_{n - 2} - a_{n - 3}|, n \geq 4.$$ Determine $ a_{14^{14}}$.
  4. Let $p \geq 5$ be a prime number. Prove that there exists an integer $a$ with $1 \leq a \leq p-2$ such that neither $a^{p-1}-1$ nor $(a+1)^{p-1}-1$ is divisible by $p^2$.
  5. Let $a > b > c > d$ be positive integers and suppose that \[ ac + bd = (b+d+a-c)(b+d-a+c). \] Prove that $ab + cd$ is not prime.
  6. Is it possible to find $100$ positive integers not exceeding $25,000$, such that all pairwise sums of them are different?

    Algebra

    1. Let $ T$ denote the set of all ordered triples $ (p,q,r)$ of nonnegative integers. Find all functions $ f: T \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$ satisfying \[ f(p,q,r) = \begin{cases} 0 & \text{if} \; pqr = 0, \\ 1 + \frac{1}{6}(f(p + 1,q - 1,r) + f(p - 1,q + 1,r) & \\ + f(p - 1,q,r + 1) + f(p + 1,q,r - 1) & \\ + f(p,q + 1,r - 1) + f(p,q - 1,r + 1)) & \text{otherwise} \end{cases} \]for all nonnegative integers $ p$, $ q$, $ r$.
    2. Let $a_0, a_1, a_2, \ldots$ be an arbitrary infinite sequence of positive numbers. Show that the inequality $1 + a_n > a_{n-1} \sqrt[n]{2}$ holds for infinitely many positive integers $n$.
    3. Let $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_n$ be arbitrary real numbers. Prove the inequality \[ \frac{x_1}{1+x_1^2} + \frac{x_2}{1+x_1^2 + x_2^2} + \cdots + \frac{x_n}{1 + x_1^2 + \cdots + x_n^2} < \sqrt{n}. \]
    4. Find all functions $f: \mathbb{R} \rightarrow \mathbb{R}$, satisfying \[ f(xy)(f(x) - f(y)) = (x-y)f(x)f(y) \] for all $x,y$.
    5. Find all positive integers $a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n$ such that \[ \frac{99}{100} = \frac{a_0}{a_1} + \frac{a_1}{a_2} + \cdots + \frac{a_{n-1}}{a_n}, \] where $a_0 = 1$ and $(a_{k+1}-1)a_{k-1} \geq a_k^2(a_k - 1)$ for $k = 1,2,\ldots,n-1$.
    6. Prove that for all positive real numbers $a,b,c$, \[ \frac{a}{\sqrt{a^2 + 8bc}} + \frac{b}{\sqrt{b^2 + 8ca}} + \frac{c}{\sqrt{c^2 + 8ab}} \geq 1. \]

    Combinatorics

    1. Let $A = (a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_{2001})$ be a sequence of positive integers. Let $m$ be the number of 3-element subsequences $(a_i,a_j,a_k)$ with $1 \leq i < j < k \leq 2001$, such that $a_j = a_i + 1$ and $a_k = a_j + 1$. Considering all such sequences $A$, find the greatest value of $m$.
    2. Let $n$ be an odd integer greater than 1 and let $c_1, c_2, \ldots, c_n$ be integers. For each permutation $a = (a_1, a_2, \ldots, a_n)$ of $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$, define $S(a) = \sum_{i=1}^n c_i a_i$. Prove that there exist permutations $a \neq b$ of $\{1,2,\ldots,n\}$ such that $n!$ is a divisor of $S(a)-S(b)$.
    3. Define a $ k$-clique to be a set of $ k$ people such that every pair of them are acquainted with each other. At a certain party, every pair of 3-cliques has at least one person in common, and there are no 5-cliques. Prove that there are two or fewer people at the party whose departure leaves no 3-clique remaining.
    4. A set of three nonnegative integers $\{x,y,z\}$ with $x < y < z$ is called historic if $\{z-y,y-x\} = \{1776,2001\}$. Show that the set of all nonnegative integers can be written as the union of pairwise disjoint historic sets.
    5. Find all finite sequences $(x_0, x_1, \ldots,x_n)$ such that for every $j$, $0 \leq j \leq n$, $x_j$ equals the number of times $j$ appears in the sequence.
    6. For a positive integer $n$ define a sequence of zeros and ones to be balanced if it contains $n$ zeros and $n$ ones. Two balanced sequences $a$ and $b$ are neighbors if you can move one of the $2n$ symbols of $a$ to another position to form $b$. For instance, when $n = 4$, the balanced sequences $01101001$ and $00110101$ are neighbors because the third (or fourth) zero in the first sequence can be moved to the first or second position to form the second sequence. Prove that there is a set $S$ of at most $\frac{1}{n+1} \binom{2n}{n}$ balanced sequences such that every balanced sequence is equal to or is a neighbor of at least one sequence in $S$.
    7. A pile of $n$ pebbles is placed in a vertical column. This configuration is modified according to the following rules. A pebble can be moved if it is at the top of a column which contains at least two more pebbles than the column immediately to its right. (If there are no pebbles to the right, think of this as a column with 0 pebbles.) At each stage, choose a pebble from among those that can be moved (if there are any) and place it at the top of the column to its right. If no pebbles can be moved, the configuration is called a final configuration. For each $n$, show that, no matter what choices are made at each stage, the final configuration obtained is unique. Describe that configuration in terms of $n$.
    8. Twenty-one girls and twenty-one boys took part in a mathematical competition. It turned out that each contestant solved at most six problems, and for each pair of a girl and a boy, there was at least one problem that was solved by both the girl and the boy. Show that there is a problem that was solved by at least three girls and at least three boys.

    Post a Comment


    $hide=mobile

    $hide=mobile

    $hide=mobile

    $show=post$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0

    Kỷ Yếu$cl=violet$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0$hide=mobile

    Journals$cl=green$type=three$count=6$sr=random$t=oot$h=1$l=0$meta=hide$rm=hide$sn=0$hide=mobile

    Name

    Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,3,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,2,An Giang,23,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,53,Bắc Giang,50,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,48,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,38,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,14,Bình Định,46,Bình Dương,23,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,6,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,13,Cà Mau,14,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,40,Cao Bằng,7,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,355,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,618,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,26,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,56,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi,1,Đề Thi HSG,1773,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,50,Đồng Tháp,52,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,17,ELMO,19,EMC,9,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. Polya,3,Gặp Gỡ Toán Học,26,Gauss,1,GDTX,3,Geometry,12,Gia Lai,26,Gia Viễn,2,Giải Tích Hàm,1,Giảng Võ,1,Giới hạn,2,Goldbach,1,Hà Giang,2,Hà Lan,1,Hà Nam,29,Hà Nội,232,Hà Tĩnh,73,Hà Trung Kiên,1,Hải Dương,50,Hải Phòng,42,Hàn Quốc,5,Hậu Giang,4,Hậu Lộc,1,Hilbert,1,Hình Học,33,HKUST,7,Hòa Bình,13,Hoài Nhơn,1,Hoàng Bá Minh,1,Hoàng Minh Quân,1,Hodge,1,Hojoo Lee,2,HOMC,5,HongKong,8,HSG 10,101,HSG 11,91,HSG 12,588,HSG 9,425,HSG Cấp Trường,78,HSG Quốc Gia,106,HSG Quốc Tế,16,Hứa Lâm Phong,1,Hứa Thuần Phỏng,1,Hùng Vương,2,Hưng Yên,33,Hương Sơn,2,Huỳnh Kim Linh,1,Hy Lạp,1,IMC,26,IMO,56,IMT,1,India,45,Inequality,13,InMC,1,International,315,Iran,11,Jakob,1,JBMO,41,Jewish,1,Journal,20,Junior,38,K2pi,1,Kazakhstan,1,Khánh Hòa,17,KHTN,54,Kiên Giang,64,Kim Liên,1,Kon Tum,18,Korea,5,Kvant,2,Kỷ Yếu,42,Lai Châu,4,Lâm Đồng,33,Lạng Sơn,21,Langlands,1,Lào Cai,17,Lê Hải Châu,1,Lê Hải Khôi,1,Lê Hoành Phò,4,Lê Khánh Sỹ,3,Lê Minh Cường,1,Lê Phúc Lữ,1,Lê Phương,1,Lê Quý Đôn,1,Lê Viết Hải,1,Lê Việt Hưng,1,Leibniz,1,Long An,42,Lớp 10,10,Lớp 10 Chuyên,455,Lớp 10 Không Chuyên,229,Lớp 11,1,Lục Ngạn,1,Lượng giác,1,Lương Tài,1,Lưu Giang Nam,2,Lý Thánh Tông,1,Macedonian,1,Malaysia,1,Margulis,2,Mark Levi,1,Mathematical Excalibur,1,Mathematical Reflections,1,Mathematics Magazine,1,Mathematics Today,1,Mathley,1,MathLinks,1,MathProblems Journal,1,Mathscope,8,MathsVN,5,MathVN,1,MEMO,11,Metropolises,4,Mexico,1,MIC,1,Michael Guillen,1,Mochizuki,1,Moldova,1,Moscow,1,Mỹ,10,MYM,227,MYTS,4,Nam Định,33,Nam Phi,1,Nam Trung Bộ,1,National,249,Nesbitt,1,Newton,4,Nghệ An,52,Ngô Bảo Châu,2,Ngô Việt Hải,1,Ngọc Huyền,2,Nguyễn Anh Tuyến,1,Nguyễn Bá Đang,1,Nguyễn Đình Thi,1,Nguyễn Đức Tấn,1,Nguyễn Đức Thắng,1,Nguyễn Duy Khương,1,Nguyễn Duy Tùng,1,Nguyễn Hữu Điển,3,Nguyễn Mình Hà,1,Nguyễn Minh Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Phan Tài Vương,1,Nguyễn Phú Khánh,1,Nguyễn Phúc Tăng,1,Nguyễn Quản Bá Hồng,1,Nguyễn Quang Sơn,1,Nguyễn Tài Chung,5,Nguyễn Tăng Vũ,1,Nguyễn Tất Thu,1,Nguyễn Thúc Vũ Hoàng,1,Nguyễn Trung Tuấn,8,Nguyễn Tuấn Anh,2,Nguyễn Văn Huyện,3,Nguyễn Văn Mậu,25,Nguyễn Văn Nho,1,Nguyễn Văn Quý,2,Nguyễn Văn Thông,1,Nguyễn Việt Anh,1,Nguyễn Vũ Lương,2,Nhật Bản,4,Nhóm $\LaTeX$,4,Nhóm Toán,1,Ninh Bình,43,Ninh Thuận,15,Nội Suy Lagrange,2,Nội Suy Newton,1,Nordic,19,Olympiad Corner,1,Olympiad Preliminary,2,Olympic 10,99,Olympic 10/3,5,Olympic 11,92,Olympic 12,30,Olympic 24/3,7,Olympic 27/4,20,Olympic 30/4,69,Olympic KHTN,6,Olympic Sinh Viên,73,Olympic Tháng 4,12,Olympic Toán,304,Olympic Toán Sơ Cấp,3,PAMO,1,Phạm Đình Đồng,1,Phạm Đức Tài,1,Phạm Huy Hoàng,1,Pham Kim Hung,3,Phạm Quốc Sang,2,Phan Huy Khải,1,Phan Thành Nam,1,Pháp,2,Philippines,8,Phú Thọ,30,Phú Yên,29,Phùng Hồ Hải,1,Phương Trình Hàm,11,Phương Trình Pythagoras,1,Pi,1,Polish,32,Problems,1,PT-HPT,14,PTNK,45,Putnam,25,Quảng Bình,44,Quảng Nam,32,Quảng Ngãi,34,Quảng Ninh,43,Quảng Trị,27,Quỹ Tích,1,Riemann,1,RMM,12,RMO,24,Romania,36,Romanian Mathematical,1,Russia,1,Sách Thường Thức Toán,7,Sách Toán,69,Sách Toán Cao Học,1,Sách Toán THCS,7,Saudi Arabia,7,Scholze,1,Serbia,17,Sharygin,24,Shortlists,56,Simon Singh,1,Singapore,1,Số Học - Tổ Hợp,27,Sóc Trăng,28,Sơn La,12,Spain,8,Star Education,5,Stars of Mathematics,11,Swinnerton-Dyer,1,Talent Search,1,Tăng Hải Tuân,2,Tạp Chí,14,Tập San,6,Tây Ban Nha,1,Tây Ninh,29,Thạch Hà,1,Thái Bình,39,Thái Nguyên,49,Thái Vân,2,Thanh Hóa,62,THCS,2,Thổ Nhĩ Kỳ,5,Thomas J. Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,7,Thừa Thiên Huế,36,Tiền Giang,19,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TPHCM,126,Trà Vinh,6,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,34,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,25,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,14,Trường Đông,19,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,56,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Sinh 10,680,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,67,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,2,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,27,Vĩnh Long,21,Vĩnh Phúc,64,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,47,VNTST,22,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,26,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,20,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
    ltr
    item
    MOlympiad: [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2001
    [Shortlists] International Mathematical Olympiad 2001
    MOlympiad
    https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/imo-2001-shortlists.html
    https://www.molympiad.net/
    https://www.molympiad.net/
    https://www.molympiad.net/2017/08/imo-2001-shortlists.html
    true
    2506595080985176441
    UTF-8
    Loaded All Posts Not found any posts VIEW ALL Readmore Reply Cancel reply Delete By Home PAGES POSTS View All RECOMMENDED FOR YOU LABEL ARCHIVE SEARCH ALL POSTS Not found any post match with your request Back Home Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat January February March April May June July August September October November December Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec just now 1 minute ago $$1$$ minutes ago 1 hour ago $$1$$ hours ago Yesterday $$1$$ days ago $$1$$ weeks ago more than 5 weeks ago Followers Follow THIS PREMIUM CONTENT IS LOCKED Please share to unlock Copy All Code Select All Code All codes were copied to your clipboard Can not copy the codes / texts, please press [CTRL]+[C] (or CMD+C with Mac) to copy