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Canadian National Mathematical Olympiad 2010 Solutions

  1. For all natural $n$, an $n$-staircase is a figure consisting of unit squares, with one square in the first row, two squares in the second row, and so on, up to $n$ squares in the $n^{th}$ row, such that all the left-most squares in each row are aligned vertically. Let $f(n)$ denote the minimum number of square tiles requires to tile the $n$-staircase, where the side lengths of the square tiles can be any natural number. e.g. $f(2)=3$ and $f(4)=7$.
    a) Find all $n$ such that $f(n)=n$.
    b) Find all $n$ such that $f(n) = n+1$.
  2. Let $A,B,P$ be three points on a circle. Prove that if $a,b$ are the distances from $P$ to the tangents at $A,B$ respectively, and $c$ is the distance from $P$ to the chord $AB$, then $c^2 =ab$.
  3. Three speed skaters have a friendly "race" on a skating oval. They all start from the same point and skate in the same direction, but with different speeds that they maintain throughout the race. The slowest skater does $1$ lap per minute, the fastest one does $3.14$ laps per minute, and the middle one does $L$ laps a minute for some $1 < L < 3.14$. The race ends at the moment when all three skaters again come together to the same point on the oval (which may differ from the starting point.) Determine the number of different choices for $L$ such that exactly $117$ passings occur before the end of the race. (Note. A passing is defined as when one skater passes another one. The beginning and the end of the race when all three skaters are together are not counted as passings.)
  4. Each vertex of a finite graph can be coloured either black or white. Initially all vertices are black. We are allowed to pick a vertex $P$ and change the colour of $P$ and all of its neighbours. Is it possible to change the colour of every vertex from black to white by a sequence of operations of this type?. (Note: A finite graph consists of a finite set of vertices and a finite set of edges between vertices. If there is an edge between vertex $A$ and vertex $B,$ then $A$ and $B$ are neighbours of each other.)
  5. Let $P(x)$ and $Q(x)$ be polynomials with integer coefficients. Let $a_n = n! +n$. Show that if $\frac{P(a_n)}{Q(a_n)}$ is an integer for every $n$, then $\frac{P(n)}{Q(n)}$ is an integer for every integer $n$ such that $Q(n)\neq 0$.

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Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,21,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,51,Bắc Giang,49,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,46,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,13,Bình Định,43,Bình Dương,21,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,13,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,347,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,610,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,38,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,54,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1629,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,49,Đồng Tháp,51,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. 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Mildorf,1,THPT Chuyên Lê Quý Đôn,1,THPTQG,15,THTT,6,Thừa Thiên Huế,34,Tiền Giang,19,Tin Tức Toán Học,1,Titu Andreescu,2,Toán 12,7,Toán Cao Cấp,3,Toán Chuyên,2,Toán Rời Rạc,5,Toán Tuổi Thơ,3,Tôn Ngọc Minh Quân,2,TOT,1,TPHCM,123,Trà Vinh,5,Trắc Nghiệm,1,Trắc Nghiệm Toán,2,Trại Hè,34,Trại Hè Hùng Vương,25,Trại Hè Phương Nam,5,Trần Đăng Phúc,1,Trần Minh Hiền,2,Trần Nam Dũng,9,Trần Phương,1,Trần Quang Hùng,1,Trần Quốc Anh,2,Trần Quốc Luật,1,Trần Quốc Nghĩa,1,Trần Tiến Tự,1,Trịnh Đào Chiến,2,Trung Quốc,12,Trường Đông,19,Trường Hè,7,Trường Thu,1,Trường Xuân,2,TST,55,Tuyên Quang,6,Tuyển Sinh,3,Tuyển Tập,44,Tuymaada,4,Undergraduate,66,USA,44,USAJMO,10,USATST,7,Uzbekistan,1,Vasile Cîrtoaje,4,Vật Lý,1,Viện Toán Học,2,Vietnam,4,Viktor Prasolov,1,VIMF,1,Vinh,27,Vĩnh Long,19,Vĩnh Phúc,63,Virginia Tech,1,VLTT,1,VMEO,4,VMF,12,VMO,46,VNTST,21,Võ Anh Khoa,1,Võ Quốc Bá Cẩn,26,Võ Thành Văn,1,Vojtěch Jarník,6,Vũ Hữu Bình,7,Vương Trung Dũng,1,WFNMC Journal,1,Wiles,1,Yên Bái,17,Yên Định,1,Yên Thành,1,Zhautykov,11,Zhou Yuan Zhe,1,
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MOlympiad: Canadian National Mathematical Olympiad 2010 Solutions
Canadian National Mathematical Olympiad 2010 Solutions
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