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[Solutions] Every Little Mistake $\to 0$ 2016

  1. Cookie Monster says a positive integer $n$ is crunchy if there exist $2n$ real numbers $x_1,x_2,\ldots,x_{2n}$, not all equal, such that the sum of any $n$ of the $x_i$'s is equal to the product of the other $n$ of the $x_i$'s. Help Cookie Monster determine all crunchy integers.
  2. Oscar is drawing diagrams with trash can lids and sticks. He draws a triangle $ABC$ and a point $D$ such that $DB$ and $DC$ are tangent to the circumcircle of $ABC$. Let $B'$ be the reflection of $B$ over $AC$ and $C'$ be the reflection of $C$ over $AB$. If $O$ is the circumcenter of $DB'C'$, help Oscar prove that $AO$ is perpendicular to $BC$.
  3. In a Cartesian coordinate plane, call a rectangle $standard$ if all of its sides are parallel to the $x$- and $y$- axes, and call a set of points $nice$ if no two of them have the same $x$- or $y$- coordinate. First, Bert chooses a nice set $B$ of $2016$ points in the coordinate plane. To mess with Bert, Ernie then chooses a set $E$ of $n$ points in the coordinate plane such that $B\cup E$ is a nice set with $2016+n$ points. Bert returns and then miraculously notices that there does not exist a standard rectangle that contains at least two points in $B$ and no points in $E$ in its interior. For a given nice set $B$ that Bert chooses, define $f(B)$ as the smallest positive integer $n$ such that Ernie can find a nice set $E$ of size $n$ with the aforementioned properties. Help Bert determine the minimum and maximum possible values of $f(B)$.
  4. Big Bird has a polynomial $P$ with integer coefficients such that $n$ divides $P(2^n)$ for every positive integer $n$. Prove that Big Bird's polynomial must be the zero polynomial.
  5. Elmo is drawing with colored chalk on a sidewalk outside. He first marks a set $S$ of $n>1$ collinear points. Then, for every unordered pair of points $\{X,Y\}$ in $S$, Elmo draws the circle with diameter $XY$ so that each pair of circles which intersect at two distinct points are drawn in different colors. Count von Count then wishes to count the number of colors Elmo used. In terms of $n$, what is the minimum number of colors Elmo could have used?
  6. Elmo is now learning olympiad geometry. In triangle $ABC$ with $AB\neq AC$, let its incircle be tangent to sides $BC$, $CA$, and $AB$ at $D$, $E$, and $F$, respectively. The internal angle bisector of $\angle BAC$ intersects lines $DE$ and $DF$ at $X$ and $Y$, respectively. Let $S$ and $T$ be distinct points on side $BC$ such that $\angle XSY=\angle XTY=90^\circ$. Finally, let $\gamma$ be the circumcircle of $\triangle AST$.
    (a) Help Elmo show that $\gamma$ is tangent to the circumcircle of $\triangle ABC$.
    (b) Help Elmo show that $\gamma$ is tangent to the incircle of $\triangle ABC$.

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Ả-rập Xê-út,1,Abel,5,Albania,2,AMM,2,Amsterdam,5,Ấn Độ,1,An Giang,21,Andrew Wiles,1,Anh,2,Áo,1,APMO,19,Ba Đình,2,Ba Lan,1,Bà Rịa Vũng Tàu,51,Bắc Giang,49,Bắc Kạn,1,Bạc Liêu,9,Bắc Ninh,46,Bắc Trung Bộ,7,Bài Toán Hay,5,Balkan,37,Baltic Way,30,BAMO,1,Bất Đẳng Thức,66,Bến Tre,46,Benelux,13,Bình Định,43,Bình Dương,21,Bình Phước,38,Bình Thuận,34,Birch,1,Booklet,11,Bosnia Herzegovina,3,BoxMath,3,Brazil,2,Bùi Đắc Hiên,1,Bùi Thị Thiện Mỹ,1,Bùi Văn Tuyên,1,Bùi Xuân Diệu,1,Bulgaria,5,Buôn Ma Thuột,1,BxMO,12,Cà Mau,13,Cần Thơ,14,Canada,39,Cao Bằng,6,Cao Quang Minh,1,Câu Chuyện Toán Học,36,Caucasus,2,CGMO,10,China,10,Chọn Đội Tuyển,347,Chu Tuấn Anh,1,Chuyên Đề,124,Chuyên Sư Phạm,31,Chuyên Trần Hưng Đạo,3,Collection,8,College Mathematic,1,Concours,1,Cono Sur,1,Contest,610,Correspondence,1,Cosmin Poahata,1,Crux,2,Czech-Polish-Slovak,25,Đà Nẵng,39,Đa Thức,2,Đại Số,20,Đắk Lắk,54,Đắk Nông,7,Đan Phượng,1,Danube,7,Đào Thái Hiệp,1,ĐBSCL,2,Đề Thi HSG,1637,Đề Thi JMO,1,Điện Biên,8,Định Lý,1,Định Lý Beaty,1,Đỗ Hữu Đức Thịnh,1,Do Thái,3,Doãn Quang Tiến,4,Đoàn Quỳnh,1,Đoàn Văn Trung,1,Đống Đa,4,Đồng Nai,49,Đồng Tháp,51,Du Hiền Vinh,1,Đức,1,Duyên Hải Bắc Bộ,25,E-Book,33,EGMO,16,ELMO,19,EMC,8,Epsilon,1,Estonian,5,Euler,1,Evan Chen,1,Fermat,3,Finland,4,Forum Of Geometry,2,Furstenberg,1,G. 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MOlympiad: [Solutions] Every Little Mistake $\to 0$ 2016
[Solutions] Every Little Mistake $\to 0$ 2016
MOlympiad
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/07/elmo-2016-solutions.html
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/
https://www.molympiad.net/2017/07/elmo-2016-solutions.html
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