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[Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2009 (Final Round)

Grade 8

  1. Points $ B_1$ and $ B_2$ lie on ray $ AM$, and points $ C_1$ and $ C_2$ lie on ray $ AK$. The circle with center $ O$ is inscribed into triangles $ AB_1C_1$ and $ AB_2C_2$. Prove that the angles $ B_1OB_2$ and $ C_1OC_2$ are equal.
  2. Given nonisosceles triangle $ ABC$. Consider three segments passing through different vertices of this triangle and bisecting its perimeter. Are the lengths of these segments certainly different?
  3. The bisectors of trapezoid's angles form a quadrilateral with perpendicular diagonals. Prove that this trapezoid is isosceles.
  4. Let $ P$ and $ Q$ be the common points of two circles. The ray with origin $ Q$ reflects from the first circle in points $ A_1$, $ A_2$,$ \ldots$ according to the rule ''the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection''. Another ray with origin $ Q$ reflects from the second circle in the points $ B_1$, $ B_2$,$ \ldots$ in the same manner. Points $ A_1$, $ B_1$ and $ P$ occurred to be collinear. Prove that all lines $ A_iB_i$ pass through P.
  5. Given triangle $ ABC$. Point $ O$ is the center of the excircle touching the side $ BC$. Point $ O_1$ is the reflection of $ O$ in $ BC$. Determine angle $ A$ if $ O_1$ lies on the circumcircle of $ ABC$.
  6. Find the locus of excenters of right triangles with given hypotenuse.
  7. Given triangle $ ABC$. Points $ M$, $ N$ are the projections of $ B$ and $ C$ to the bisectors of angles $ C$ and $ B$ respectively. Prove that line $ MN$ intersects sides $ AC$ and $ AB$ in their points of contact with the incircle of $ ABC$.
  8. Some polygon can be divided into two equal parts by three different ways. Is it certainly valid that this polygon has an axis or a center of symmetry?

Grade 9

  1. Given $ n$ points on the plane, which are the vertices of a convex polygon, $ n > 3$. There exists $ k$ regular triangles with the side equal to $ 1$ and the vertices at the given points. Prove that $ k < \frac {2}{3}n$. Construct the configuration with $ k > 0.666n$.
  2. Let $ ABC$ be an acute triangle, $ CC_1$ its bisector, $ O$ its circumcenter. The perpendicular from $ C$ to $ AB$ meets line $ OC_1$ in a point lying on the circumcircle of $ AOB$. Determine angle $ C$.
  3. Given quadrilateral $ ABCD$. The circumcircle of $ ABC$ is tangent to side $ CD$, and the circumcircle of $ ACD$ is tangent to side $ AB$. Prove that the length of diagonal $ AC$ is less than the distance between the midpoints of $ AB$ and $ CD$.
  4. Let $ CL$ be a bisector of triangle $ ABC$. Points $ A_1$ and $ B_1$ are the reflections of $ A$ and $ B$ in $ CL$, points $ A_2$ and $ B_2$ are the reflections of $ A$ and $ B$ in $ L$. Let $ O_1$ and $ O_2$ be the circumcenters of triangles $ AB_1B_2$ and $ BA_1A_2$ respectively. Prove that angles $ O_1CA$ and $ O_2CB$ are equal.
  5. In triangle $ ABC$, one has marked the incenter, the foot of altitude from vertex $ C$ and the center of the excircle tangent to side $ AB$. After this, the triangle was erased. Restore it.
  6. Given triangle $ ABC$ of area 1. Let $ BM$ be the perpendicular from $ B$ to the bisector of angle $ C$. Determine the area of triangle $ AMC$.
  7. Given a circle and a point $ C$ not lying on this circle. Consider all triangles $ ABC$ such that points $ A$ and $ B$ lie on the given circle. Prove that the triangle of maximal area is isosceles.
  8. Three lines passing through point $ O$ form equal angles by pairs. Points $ A_1$, $ A_2$ on the first line and $ B_1$, $ B_2$ on the second line are such that the common point $ C_1$ of $ A_1B_1$ and $ A_2B_2$ lies on the third line. Let $ C_2$ be the common point of $ A_1B_2$ and $ A_2B_1$. Prove that angle $ C_1OC_2$ is right.

Grade 10

  1. Given triangle $ ABC$ and two points $ X$, $ Y$ not lying on its circumcircle. Let $ A_1$, $ B_1$, $ C_1$ be the projections of $ X$ to $ BC$, $ CA$, $ AB$, and $ A_2$, $ B_2$, $ C_2$ be the projections of $ Y$. Prove that the perpendiculars from $ A_1$, $ B_1$, $ C_1$ to $ B_2C_2$, $ C_2A_2$, $ A_2B_2$, respectively, concur if and only if line $ XY$ passes through the circumcenter of $ ABC$.
  2. Given three parallel lines on the plane. Find the locus of incenters of triangles with vertices lying on these lines (a single vertex on each line).
  3. Given convex $ n$-gon $ A_1\ldots A_n$. Let $ P_i$ ($ i = 1,\ldots , n$) be such points on its boundary that $ A_iP_i$ bisects the area of polygon. All points $ P_i$ don't coincide with any vertex and lie on $ k$ sides of $ n$-gon. What is the maximal and the minimal value of $ k$ for each given $ n$?
  4. Suppose $ H$ and $ O$ are the orthocenter and the circumcenter of acute triangle $ ABC$; $ AA_1$, $ BB_1$ and $ CC_1$ are the altitudes of the triangle. Point $ C_2$ is the reflection of $ C$ in $ A_1B_1$. Prove that $ H$, $ O$, $ C_1$ and $ C_2$ are concyclic.
  5. The opposite sidelines of quadrilateral $ ABCD$ intersect at points $ P$ and $ Q$. Two lines passing through these points meet the side of $ ABCD$ in four points which are the vertices of a parallelogram. Prove that the center of this parallelogram lies on the line passing through the midpoints of diagonals of $ ABCD$.
  6. Construct a quadrilateral which is inscribed and circumscribed, given the radii of the respective circles and the angle between the diagonals of quadrilateral.
  7. Is it true that for each $ n$, the regular $ 2n$-gon is a projection of some polyhedron having not greater than $ n + 2$ faces?
  8. A sphere is inscribed into a quadrangular pyramid. The point of contact of the sphere with the base of the pyramid is projected to the edges of the base. Prove that these projections are concyclic.

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MOlympiad: [Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2009 (Final Round)
[Solutions] Sharygin Geometry Mathematical Olympiad 2009 (Final Round)
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